peer reviewed studies hydrogen water - h2


Hydrogen (H2) Water Research

Over 600 peer-reviewed articles articles suggest that molecular hydrogen (H2) offers therapeutic potential or benefit in over 150 disease models and health conditions positively impacting essentially every organ of the body. The articles below are just a sampling and are organized by organ topic, disease, or mechanism of action. Each article listed can be found online.

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KAWASAKI, H., GUAN, J. J. & TAMAMA, K. (2010). Hydrogen gas treatment prolongs replicative lifespan of bone marrow multipotential stromal cells in vitro while preserving differentiation and paracrine potentials. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 397, 608-613.

FUJITA, R., TANAKA, Y., SAIHARA, Y., YAMAKITA, M., ANDO, D. & KOYAMA, K. (2011). Effect of molecular hydrogen saturated alkaline electrolyzed water on disuse muscle atrophy in gastrocnemius muscle. Journal of Physiological Anthropology 30, 195-201

HANAOKA, T., KAMIMURA, N., YOKOTA, T., TAKAI, S. & OHTA, S. (2011). Molecular hydrogen protects chondrocytes from oxidative stress and indirectly alters gene expressions through reducing peroxynitrite derived from nitric oxide. Medical Gas Research 1, 18.

ITOH, T., HAMADA, N., TERAZAWA, R., ITO, M., OHNO, K., ICHIHARA, M. & NOZAWA, Y. (2011). Molecular hydrogen inhibits lipopolysaccharide/interferon gamma-induced nitric oxide production through modulation of signal transduction in macrophages. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 411, 143-9.

KUBOTA, M., SHIMMURA, S., KUBOTA, S., MIYASHITA, H., KATO, N., NODA, K., OZAWA, Y., USUI, T., ISHIDA, S., UMEZAWA, K., KURIHARA, T. & TSUBOTA, K. (2011). Hydrogen and N-acetyl-L-cysteine rescue oxidative stress-induced angiogenesis in a mouse corneal alkali-burn model. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 52, 427-33.

LEKIC, T., MANAENKO, A., ROLLAND, W., FATHALI, N., PETERSON, M., TANG, J. & ZHANG, J. H. (2011). Protective effect of hydrogen gas therapy after germinal matrix hemorrhage in neonatal rats. Acta Neurochir Suppl 111, 237-41. TAKEUCHI, S., WADA, K., NAGATANI, K., OSADA, H., OTANI, N. & NAWASHIRO, H. (2012). Hydrogen may inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation: an ex vivo and in vivo study. Internal Medicine 51, 1309-13.

XU, Z., ZHOU, J., CAI, J., ZHU, Z., SUN, X. & JIANG, C. (2012). Anti-inflammation effects of hydrogen saline in LPS activated macrophages and carrageenan induced paw oedema. J Inflamm (Lond) 9, 2.

CAI, W. W., ZHANG, M. H., YU, Y. S. & CAI, J. H. (2013). Treatment with hydrogen molecule alleviates TNFalpha-induced cell injury in osteoblast. Mol Cell Biochem 373, 1-9.

GUO, J. D., LI, L., SHI, Y. M., WANG, H. D. & HOU, S. X. (2013). Hydrogen water consumption prevents osteopenia in ovariectomized rats. Br J Pharmacol 168, 1412-20.

SUN, Y., SHUANG, F., CHEN, D. M. & ZHOU, R. B. (2013). Treatment of hydrogen molecule abates oxidative stress and alleviates bone loss induced by modeled microgravity in rats. Osteoporos Int24, 969-78.

T. KASHIWAGI, T. H., S. KABAYAMA, M. TAKAKI, K. TERUYA, Y. KATAKURA, K. OTUBO, S. MORISAWA, S. SHIRAHATA. (2005). Suppression of Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis of Neuronal Cells by Electrolyzed-Reduced Water. Animal Cell Technology Meets Genomics 2, 257-260.

NAKAO, A., KACZOROWSKI, D. J., ZUCKERBRAUN, B. S., LEI, J., FALEO, G., DEGUCHI, K., MCCURRY, K. R., BILLIAR, T. R. & KANNO, S. (2008). Galantamine and carbon monoxide protect brain microvascular endothelial cells by heme oxygenase-1 induction. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 367, 674-9.

SATO, Y., KAJIYAMA, S., AMANO, A., KONDO, Y., SASAKI, T., HANDA, S., TAKAHASHI, R., FUKUI, M., HASEGAWA, G., NAKAMURA, N., FUJINAWA, H., MORI, T., OHTA, M., OBAYASHI, H., MARUYAMA, N. & ISHIGAMI, A. (2008). Hydrogen-rich pure water prevents superoxide formation in brain slices of vitamin C-depleted SMP30/GNL knockout mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 375, 346-350.

FU, Y., ITO, M., FUJITA, Y., ITO, M., ICHIHARA, M., MASUDA, A., SUZUKI, Y., MAESAWA, S., KAJITA, Y., HIRAYAMA, M., OHSAWA, I., OHTA, S. & OHNO, K. (2009). Molecular hydrogen is protective against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nigrostriatal degeneration in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease. Neuroscience Letters 453, 81–85.

FUJITA, K., SEIKE, T., YUTSUDO, N., OHNO, M., YAMADA, H., YAMAGUCHI, H., SAKUMI, K., YAMAKAWA, Y., KIDO, M. A., TAKAKI, A., KATAFUCHI, T., TANAKA, Y., NAKABEPPU, Y. & NODA, M. (2009). Hydrogen in drinking water reduces dopaminergic neuronal loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson's disease. PLoS One 4, e7247.

KUROKI, C., TOKUMARU, O., OGATA, K., KOGA, H. & YOKOI, I. (2009). Neuroprotective effects of hydrogen gas on brain in three types of stress models: alpha P-31-NMR study. Neuroscience Research 65, S124-S124.

NAGATA, K., NAKASHIMA-KAMIMURA, N., MIKAMI, T., OHSAWA, I. & OHTA, S. (2009). Consumption of Molecular Hydrogen Prevents the Stress-Induced Impairments in Hippocampus-Dependent Learning Tasks during Chronic Physical Restraint in Mice. Neuropsychopharmacology 34, 501-508.

BARI, F., OLAH, O., NEMETH, I., HUGYECZ, M. & DOMOKI, F. (2010). Inhalation of Hydrogen Gas Protects Cerebrovascular Reactivity Against Moderate but Not Severe Perinatal Hypoxic Injury in Newborn Piglets. Stroke 41, E323-E323.

DOMOKI, F., OLAH, O., ZIMMERMANN, A., NEMETH, I., TOTH-SZUKI, V., HUGYECZ, M., TEMESVARI, P. & BART, F. (2010). Hydrogen is Neuroprotective and Preserves Cerebrovascular Reactivity in Asphyxiated Newborn Pigs. Pediatric Research 68, 387-392.

GU, Y., HUANG, C. S., INOUE, T., YAMASHITA, T., ISHIDA, T., KANG, K. M. & NAKAO, A. (2010). Drinking Hydrogen Water Ameliorated Cognitive Impairment in Senescence-Accelerated Mice. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 46, 269-276.

MR TAKAAKI KOMATSU, S. K., AKIRA HAYASHIDA, HIROFUMA NOGAMI, DR KIICHIRO TERUYA, YOSHINORI KATAKURA, KAZUMITI OTSUBO, SHINKATSU MORISAWA, PROF SANETAKA SHIRAHATA. (2001). Suppressive Effect of Electrolyzed-Reduced Water on the Growth of Cancer Cells and Microorganisms. Animal Cell Technology: From Target to Market 1, 220-223.

S. SHIRAHATA, S. K., K. KUSUMOTO, M. GOTOH, K. TERUYA, K. OTSUBO, J. S. MORISAWA, H. HAYASHI, K. KATAKURA. (2002). Electrolyzed Reduced Water Which Can Scavenge Active Oxygen Species Supresses Cell Growth and Regulates Gene Expression of Animal Cells. New Developments and New Applications in Animal Cell Technology, 93-96.

KOMATSU, T., KATAKURA, Y., TERUYA, K., OTSUBO, K., MORISAWA, S., & & SHIRAHATA, S. (2003). Electrolyzed reduced water induces differentiation in K-562 human leukemia cells. Animal cell technology: Basic & applied aspects, 387-391.

JUN, Y., TERUYA, K., KATAKURA, Y., OTSUBO, K., MORISAWA, S. & SHIRAHATA, S. (2004). Suppression of invasion of cancer cells and angiogenesis by electrolyzed reduced water. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Animal 40, 79A-79A.

LEE, K.-J. (2004). Anticancer Effect of Alkaline Reduced Water. J Int Soc Life Inf Sci 22, 302-305.

NISHIKAWA, R., TERUYA, K., KATAKURA, Y., OTSUBO, K., MORISAWA, S. & SHIRAHATA, S. (2004). Suppression of two-stage cell transformation by electrolyzed reduced water/platinum nanocolloids. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Animal 40, 79A-79A.

NISHIKAWA, R., TERUYA, K., KATAKURA, Y., OSADA, K., HAMASAKI, T., KASHIWAGI, T., KOMATSU, T., LI, Y., YE, J., ICHIKAWA, A., OTSUBO, K., MORISAWA, S., XU, Q. & SHIRAHATA, S. (2005). Electrolyzed Reduced Water Supplemented with Platinum Nanoparticles Suppresses Promotion of Two-stage Cell Transformation. Cytotechnology 47, 97-105.

RYUHEI NISHIKAWA, F. O. A. K. T., YOSHINORI KATAKURA, KAZUMICHI OTSUBO, SHINKATSU MORISAWA, QIANGHUA XU, SANETAKA SHIRAHATA. (2006). Suppression of two-stage cell transformation by electrolyzed reduced water containing platinum nanoparticles. Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects 14.

SAITOH, Y., OKAYASU, H., XIAO, L., HARATA, Y. & MIWA, N. (2008). Neutral pH Hydrogen-Enriched Electrolyzed Water Achieves Tumor-Preferential Clonal Growth Inhibition Over Normal Cells and Tumor Invasion Inhibition on currently With Intracellular Oxidant Repression. Oncology Research 17, 247-255.

YE, J., LI, Y., HAMASAKI, T., NAKAMICHI, N., KOMATSU, T., KASHIWAGI, T., TERUYA, K., NISHIKAWA, R., KAWAHARA, T., OSADA, K., TOH, K., ABE, M., TIAN, H., KABAYAMA, S., OTSUBO, K., MORISAWA, S., KATAKURA, Y. & SHIRAHATA, S. (2008). Inhibitory effect of electrolyzed reduced water on tumor angiogenesis. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 31, 19-26.

SAITOH, Y., YOSHIMURA, Y., NAKANO, K. & MIWA, N. (2009). Platinum nanocolloid-supplemented hydrogen dissolved water inhibits growth of human tongue carcinoma cells preferentially over normal cells. Exp Oncol 31, 156-62.

OHARAZAWA, H., IGARASHI, T., YOKOTA, T., FUJII, H., SUZUKI, H., MACHIDE, M., TAKAHASHI, H., OHTA, S. & OHSAWA, I. (2010). Protection of the Retina by Rapid Diffusion of Hydrogen: Administration of Hydrogen-Loaded Eye Drops in Retinal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 51, 487-492.

TAURA, A., KIKKAWA, Y. S., NAKAGAWA, T. & ITO, J. (2010). Hydrogen protects vestibular hair cells from free radicals. Acta Oto-Laryngologica 130, 95-100. LIN, Y., KASHIO, A., SAKAMOTO, T., SUZUKAWA, K., KAKIGI, A. & YAMASOBA, T. (2011). Hydrogen in drinking water attenuates noise-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs. Neuroscience Letters 487, 12-16.

FENG, M., WANG, X. H., YANG, X. B., XIAO, Q. & JIANG, F. G. (2012). Protective effect of saturated hydrogen saline against blue light-induced retinal damage in rats. Int J Ophthalmol 5, 151-7.

HUANG, L., ZHAO, S., ZHANG, J. H. & SUN, X. (2012). Hydrogen saline treatment attenuates hyperoxia-induced retinopathy by inhibition of oxidative stress and reduction of VEGF expression. Ophthalmic Res 47, 122-7.

QU, J., GAN, Y. N., XIE, K. L., LIU, W. B., WANG, Y. F., HEI, R. Y., MI, W. J. & QIU, J. H. (2012). Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates ouabain-induced auditory neuropathy in gerbils. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 33, 445-451.

QU, J., LI, X., WANG, J., MI, W., XIE, K. & QIU, J. (2012). Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates cisplatin-induced ototoxicity via reducing oxidative stress. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 76, 111-5.

ZHOU, Y., ZHENG, H., RUAN, F., CHEN, X., ZHENG, G., KANG, M., ZHANG, Q. & SUN, X. (2012). Hydrogen-rich saline alleviates experimental noise-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs. Neuroscience 209, 47-53

SHIRAHATA, S., KABAYAMA, S., NAKANO, M., MIURA, T., KUSUMOTO, K., GOTOH, M., HAYASHI, H., OTSUBO, K., MORISAWA, S. & KATAKURA, Y. (1997). Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidative damage. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 234, 269-274.

HANAOKA, K., SUN, D. X., LAWRENCE, R., KAMITANI, Y. & FERNANDES, G. (2004). The mechanism of the enhanced antioxidant effects against superoxide anion radicals of reduced water produced by electrolysis. Biophysical chemistry 107, 71-82.

HIRAOKA, A., TAKEMOTO, M., SUZUKI, T., SHINOHARA, A., CHIBA, M., SHIRAO, M. & YOSHIMURA, Y. (2004). Studies on the properties and real existence of aqueous solution systems that are assumed to have antioxidant activities by the action of "active hydrogen " . Journal of Health Science 50, 456-465.

PARK, E. J. (2005). Protective effect of electrolyzed reduced water on the paraquat-induced oxidative damage of human lymphocyte DNA. Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry 48, 155-160.

YANAGIHARA, T., ARAI, K., MIYAMAE, K., SATO, B., SHUDO, T., YAMADA, M. & AOYAMA, M. (2005). Electrolyzed hydrogen-saturated water for drinking use elicits an antioxidative effect: a feeding test with rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 69, 1985-7.

LEE, M. Y., KIM, Y. K., RYOO, K. K., LEE, Y. B. & PARK, E. J. (2006). Electrolyzed-reduced water protects against oxidative damage to DNA, RNA, and protein. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 135, 133-44.

OHSAWA, I., ISHIKAWA, M., TAKAHASHI, K., WATANABE, M., NISHIMAKI, K., YAMAGATA, K., KATSURA, K., KATAYAMA, Y., ASOH, S. & OHTA, S. (2007). Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Nat Med 13, 688-694.

ANXU YAN, H. T., TAKEKI HAMASAKI, MASUMI ABE, NOBORU NAKAMICHI, KIICHIRO TERUYA, YOSHINORI KATAKURA, SHINKATSU MORISAWA, SANETAKA SHIRAHATA. (2010). electrolyzed reduced water prolongs Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan. Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects 16, 289-293.

HIRAOKA, A., INABA, H., SUZUKI, E., KASAI, K., SUZUKI, H., SHINOHARA, A., SHIRAO, M., KUBO, K. & YOSHIMURA, Y. (2010). In Vitro Physicochemical Properties of Neutral Aqueous Solution Systems (Water Products as Drinks) Containing Hydrogen Gas, 2-Carboxyethyl Germanium Sesquioxide, and Platinum Nanocolloid as Additives. Journal of Health Science 56, 167-174.

YAN, H. X., TIAN, H. Z., KINJO, T., HAMASAKI, T., TOMIMATSU, K., NAKAMICHI, N., TERUYA, K., KABAYAMA, S. & SHIRAHATA, S. (2010). Extension of the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans by the Use of Electrolyzed Reduced Water. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 74, 2011-2015.

BERJAK, P., SERSHEN, VARGHESE, B. & PAMMENTER, N. W. (2011). Cathodic amelioration of the adverse effects of oxidative stress accompanying procedures necessary for cryopreservation of embryonic axes of recalcitrant-seeded species. Seed Science Research 21, 187-203

KUMON, K. (1997). What Is Functional Water? Artificial Organs 21, 2-4.

OKOUCHI, S., SUZUKI, M., SUGANO, K., KAGAMIMORI, S. & IKEDA, S. (2002). Water desirable for the human body in terms of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) to pH relationship. Journal of Food Science 67, 1594-1598.

SHIRAHATA, S. A. N. E. T. A. K. A. (2002). Reduced water for prevention of diseases. Animal Cell Technology: Basic and Applied Aspects 12, 25-30.

BALL, J. (2007). Recently published papers: More about EGDT, experimental therapies and some inconvenient truths. Critical Care 11.

WOOD, K. C. & GLADWIN, M. T. (2007). The hydrogen highway to reperfusion therapy. Nat Med 13, 673-674.

OHTA, S. (2008). [Hydrogen gas and hydrogen water act as a therapeutic and preventive antioxidant with a novel concept]. Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi 45, 355-62.

Jun, X.S. and H. Zhang, Hydrogen-an endogenous antioxidant in the body. Academic Journal of Second Military Medical University, 2008. 28(3): p. 233-235.

MILTON, S. L. (2009). Hydrogen Saline a Real Gas. Journal of Experimental Biology 212, v-vi.

NAKAO, A., SUGIMOTO, R., BILLIAR, T. R. & MCCURRY, K. R. (2009). Therapeutic Antioxidant Medical Gas. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 44, 1-13.

GEORGE, J. F. & AGARWAL, A. (2010). Hydrogen: another gas with therapeutic potential. Kidney International 77, 85-87.

GONCHARUK, V. V., BAGRII, V. A., MELNIK, L. A., CHEBOTAREVA, R. D. & BASHTAN, S. Y. (2010). The use of redox potential in water treatment processes. Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology 32, 1-9.

HONG, Y., CHEN, S. & ZHANG, J. M. (2010). Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: a review of clinical and experimental studies. Journal of International Medical Research 38, 1893-903.

HUANG, C. S., KAWAMURA, T., TOYODA, Y. & NAKAO, A. (2010). Recent advances in hydrogen research as a therapeutic medical gas. Free Radical Research 44, 971-982.

LIU, C., CUI, J. G., SUN, Q. & CAI, J. M. (2010). Hydrogen therapy may be an effective and specific novel treatment for acute radiation syndrome. Medical Hypotheses 74, 145-146.

QIAN, L. R., LI, B. L., CAI, J. M. & GAO, F. (2010). The Hypothesis of an Effective Safe and Novel Radioprotective Agent Hydrogen-rich Solution. West Indian Medical Journal 59, 122-124.

CHUAI, Y., ZHAO, L., NI, J., SUN, D., CUI, J., LI, B., QIAN, L., GAO, F. & CAI, J. (2011). A possible prevention strategy of radiation pneumonitis: combine radiotherapy with aerosol inhalation of hydrogen-rich solution. Medical Science Monitor 17, HY1-4.

JUN CHEN, B. Z., MINGCHAO LI, TAO QI, ZHENG CHEN, XUEJUN SUN, XIAO CHEN (2011). Hydrogen therapy may be a promising, safe and effective treatment for diabetic erectile dysfunction: a hypothesis. Alternative Medicine Studies

OHTA, S. (2011). Recent progress toward hydrogen medicine: potential of molecular hydrogen for preventive and therapeutic applications. Curr Pharm Des 17, 2241-52.

OHTA, S., NAKAO, A. & OHNO, K. (2011). The 2011 Medical Molecular Hydrogen Symposium: An Inaugural Symposium of the Journal Medical Gas Research Medical Gas Research 1, 10.

OHTA, S., NAKAO, A. & OHNO, K. (2011). The 2011 Medical Molecular Hydrogen Symposium: An inaugural symposium of the journal Medical Gas Research. Med Gas Res 1, 10.

SCHOENFELD, M. P., ANSARI, R. R., ZAKRAJSEK, J. F., BILLIAR, T. R., TOYODA, Y., WINK, D. A. & NAKAO, A. (2011). Hydrogen therapy may reduce the risks related to radiation-induced oxidative stress in space flight. Medical Hypotheses 76, 117-8.

YONGCHUN SHEN, T. Y., TAO WANG, FUQIANG WEN. (2011). Hydrogen gas: a novel antioxidant for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of Medical Colleges of PLA 26, 94-97.

GHANIZADEH, A. (2012). Hydrogen as a novel hypothesized emerging treatment for oxidative stress in autism. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 16, 1313-4.

GHANIZADEH, A. (2012). Physical exercise and intermittent administration of lactulose may improve autism symptoms through hydrogen production. Medical Gas Research 2, 19.

L, D. & WANG, W. C. (2012). Can hydrogen retard the progression of osteoarthritis? African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 6, 352-354.

OHNO, K., ITO, M. & ICHIHARA, M. (2012). Molecular hydrogen as an emerging therapeutic medical gas for neurodegenerative and other diseases. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2012, 353152.

OHTA, S. (2012). Molecular hydrogen is a novel antioxidant to efficiently reduce oxidative stress with potential for the improvement of mitochondrial diseases. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1820, 586-94.

OSTOJIC, S. M. (2012). Serum alkalinization and hydrogen-rich water in healthy men. Mayo Clin Proc 87, 501-2.

RHEEM, K. E., LIM, Y. R., LEE, B. S., LEE, S. K., SEONG, K. M., HYUN, D. H. & MIN, K. J. (2012). Does alkaline-reduced hexagonal water delay the aging process in Drosophila? Geriatr Gerontol Int 12, 151-4.

SCHOENFELD, M. P., ANSARI, R. R., NAKAO, A. & WINK, D. (2012). A hypothesis on biological protection from space radiation through the use of new therapeutic gases as medical counter measures. Medical Gas Research 2, 8.

SHI, P. & SUN, W. (2012). A hypothesis on chemical mechanism of the effect of hydrogen. Med Gas Res 2, 17.

SHIRAHATA, S., HAMASAKI, T. & TERUYA, K. (2012). Advanced research on the health benefit of reduced water. Trends in Food Science & Technology 23, 124-131.

SHULIN LIU, X. S. A. H. T. (2012). Hydrogen from a biologically inert gas to a unique antioxidant.

SIMON, A. R. (2012). Hydrogen-supplemented drinking water, just soda or an elixir of life? Transplant International 25, 1211-1212.

ZHANG, J. Y., LIU, C., ZHOU, L., QU, K., WANG, R. T., TAI, M. H., LEI, J. C. W. L., WU, Q. F. & WANG, Z. X. (2012). A Review of Hydrogen as a New Medical Therapy. Hepato-Gastroenterology 59, 1026-1032.

DIXON, B. J., TANG, J. & ZHANG, J. H. (2013). The evolution of molecular hydrogen: a noteworthy potential therapy with clinical significance. Med Gas Res 3, 10.

GHANIZADEH, A. & BERK, M. (2013). Molecular hydrogen: an overview of its neurobiological effects and therapeutic potential for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Med Gas Res 3, 11.

QU, J. & LU, X. (2013). Hydrogen: A promising novel treatment for hepatic encephalopathy? Free Radic Biol Med.

WATANABE, T., KISHIKAWA, Y. & SHIRAI, W. (1997). Influence of alkaline ionized water on rat erythrocyte hexokinase activity and myocardium. J Toxicol Sci 22, 141-52.

WATANABE, T. & KISHIKAWA, Y. (1998). Degradation of myocardiac myosin and creatine kinase in rats given alkaline ionized water. J Vet Med Sci 60, 245-50.

WATANABE, T., SHIRAI, W., PAN, I., FUKUDA, Y., MURASUGI, E., SATO, T., KAMATA, H. & UWATOKO, K. (1998). Histopathological influence of alkaline ionized water on myocardial muscle of mother rats. J Toxicol Sci 23, 411-7.

QIAN, L. R., CAO, F., CUI, J. G., WANG, Y. C., HUANG, Y. C., CHUAI, Y. H., ZAHO, L. Q., JIANG, H. & CAI, J. M. (2010). The Potential Cardioprotective Effects of Hydrogen in Irradiated Mice. Journal of Radiation Research 51, 741-747.

HAYASHI, T., YOSHIOKA, T., HASEGAWA, K., MIYAMURA, M., MORI, T., UKIMURA, A., MATSUMURA, Y. & ISHIZAKA, N. (2011). Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates left ventricular remodeling induced by intermittent hypoxia in mice. American Journal of Physiology – Heart and Circulatory Physiology 301, H1062-9.

KASUYAMA, K., TOMOFUJI, T., EKUNI, D., TAMAKI, N., AZUMA, T., IRIE, K., ENDO, Y. & MORITA, M. (2011). Hydrogen-rich water attenuates experimental periodontitis in a rat model. J Clin Periodontol 38, 1085-90.

HAYASHIDA, K., SANO, M., KAMIMURA, N., YOKOTA, T., SUZUKI, M., MAEKAWA, Y., KAWAMURA, A., ABE, T., OHTA, S., FUKUDA, K. & HORI, S. (2012). H(2) gas improves functional outcome after cardiac arrest to an extent comparable to therapeutic hypothermia in a rat model. J Am Heart Assoc 1, e003459.

NODA, K., TANAKA, Y., SHIGEMURA, N., KAWAMURA, T., WANG, Y., MASUTANI, K., SUN, X., TOYODA, Y., BERMUDEZ, C. A. & NAKAO, A. (2012). Hydrogen-supplemented drinking water protects cardiac allografts from inflammation-associated deterioration. Transpl Int 25, 1213-22.

QIN, Z. X., YU, P., QIAN, D. H., SONG, M. B., TAN, H., YU, Y., LI, W., WANG, H., LIU, J., WANG, Q., SUN, X. J., JIANG, H., ZHU, J. K., LU, W. & HUANG, L. (2012). Hydrogen-rich saline prevents neointima formation after carotid balloon injury by suppressing ROS and the TNF-alpha/NF-kappaB pathway. Atherosclerosis 220, 343-50.

SAKAI, K., CHO, S., SHIBATA, I., YOSHITOMI, O., MAEKAWA, T. & SUMIKAWA, K. (2012). Inhalation of hydrogen gas protects against myocardial stunning and infarction in swine. Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal 46, 183-9.

SUN, Q., KAWAMURA, T., MASUTANI, K., PENG, X., STOLZ, D. B., PRIBIS, J. P., BILLIAR, T. R., SUN, X., BERMUDEZ, C. A., TOYODA, Y. & NAKAO, A. (2012). Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water inhibits intimal hyperplasia in arterialized vein grafts in rats. Cardiovasc Res 94, 144-53.

YOSHIDA, A., ASANUMA, H., SASAKI, H., SANADA, S., YAMAZAKI, S., ASANO, Y., SHINOZAKI, Y., MORI, H., SHIMOUCHI, A., SANO, M., ASAKURA, M., MINAMINO, T., TAKASHIMA, S., SUGIMACHI, M., MOCHIZUKI, N. & KITAKAZE, M. (2012). H(2) mediates cardioprotection via involvements of K(ATP) channels and permeability transition pores of mitochondria in dogs. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 26, 217-26.

FUJII, Y., SHIRAI, M., INAMORI, S., SHIMOUCHI, A., SONOBE, T., TSUCHIMOCHI, H., PEARSON, J. T., TAKEWA, Y., TATSUMI, E. & TAENAKA, Y. (2013). Insufflation of hydrogen gas restrains the inflammatory response of cardiopulmonary bypass in a rat model. Artif Organs 37, 136-41.

NAGATANI, K., TAKEUCHI, S., KOBAYASHI, H., OTANI, N., WADA, K., FUJITA, M., NAWASHIRO, H., TACHIBANA, S. & SHIMA, K. (2013). The Effect of Hydrogen Gas on a Mouse Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion. Brain Edema XV Acta Neurochirurgica Supplement

HUANG, K. C., YANG, C. C., LEE, K. T. & CHIEN, C. T. (2003). Reduced hemodialysis-induced oxidative stress in end-stage renal disease patients by electrolyzed reduced water. Kidney Int 64, 704-14.

HIRAOKA, A., SASAKI, S., YAMADA, T., SHINOHARA, A. & CHIBA, M. (2006). Effects of drinking a water product with anti-oxidant activities in vitro on the blood levels of biomarker substances for the oxidative stress. Journal of Health Science 52, 817-820.

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NAKAO, A., TOYODA, Y., SHARMA, P., EVANS, M. & GUTHRIE, N. (2010). Effectiveness of Hydrogen Rich Water on Antioxidant Status of Subjects with Potential Metabolic Syndrome-An Open Label Pilot Study. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 46, 140-149.

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KANG, K.-M., KANG, Y.-N., CHOI, I.-B., GU, Y., KAWAMURA, T., TOYODA, Y. & NAKAO, A. (2011). Effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on the quality of life of patients treated with radiotherapy for liver tumors. Medical Gas Research 1, 11.

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ISHIBASHI, T., SATO, B., RIKITAKE, M., SEO, T., KUROKAWA, R., HARA, Y., NARITOMI, Y., HARA, H. & NAGAO, T. (2012). Consumption of water containing a high concentration of molecular hydrogen reduces oxidative stress and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: an open-label pilot study. Medical Gas Research 2, 27.

ONO, H., NISHIJIMA, Y., ADACHI, N., SAKAMOTO, M., KUDO, Y., KANEKO, K., NAKAO, A. & IMAOKA, T. (2012). A basic study on molecular hydrogen (H2) inhalation in acute cerebral ischemia patients for safety check with hysiological parameters and measurement of blood H2 level. Medical Gas Research 2, 21.

ONO, H., NISHIJIMA, Y., ADACHI, N., SAKAMOTO, M., KUDO, Y., NAKAZAWA, J., KANEKO, K. & NAKAO, A. (2012). Hydrogen(H2) treatment for acute erythymatous skin diseases. A report of 4 patients with safety data and a non-controlled feasibility study with H2 concentration measurement on two volunteers. Medical Gas Research 2, 14.

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CAI, J., KANG, Z., LIU, W. W., LUO, X., QIANG, S., ZHANG, J. H., OHTA, S., SUN, X., XU, W., TAO, H. & LI, R. (2008). Hydrogen therapy reduces apoptosis in neonatal hypoxia-ischemia rat model. Neurosci Lett 441, 167-172.

HAYASHIDA, K., SANO, M., KIMURA, K., ENDO, J., KATAYAMA, T., TOKUDOME, S., ONIZUKA, T., YUASA, S., KAWAMURA, A., OGAWA, S. & FUKUDA, K. (2008). Inhalation of hydrogen gas protects the heart from ischemic reperfusion injury. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 51, A375-A375.

HAYASHIDA, K., SANO, M., OHSAWA, I., SHINMURA, K., TAMAKI, K., KIMURA, K., ENDO, J., KATAYAMA, T., KAWAMURA, A., KOHSAKA, S., MAKINO, S., OHTA, S., OGAWA, S. & FUKUDA, K. (2008). Inhalation of hydrogen gas reduces infarct size in the rat model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 373, 30-35.

HAYASHIDA, K., SANO, M., OHSAWA, I., SHINMURA, K., TAMAKI, K., KIMURA, K., ENDO, J., OHTA, S., FUKUDA, K. & OGAWA, S. (2008). Inhalation of hydrogen gas reduces infarct size in the rat model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Journal of Cardiac Failure 14, S168-S168.

KUROKI, C., TOKUMARU, O., OGATA, K. & YOKOI, I. (2008). Neuroprotective effects of hydrogen gas on brain in hypoxic stress model and ischemia-reperfusion model: A P-31 NMR study. Neuroscience Research 61, S274-S274.

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KUROKI, C., TOKUMARU, O., OGATA, K., KOGA, H. & YOKOI, I. (2009). Neuroprotective Effects of Hydrogen Gas on Brain in Ischemia-Reperfusion Model: A P-31-Nmr Study. Journal of Physiological Sciences 59, 371-371.

MAO, Y. F., ZHENG, X. F., CAI, J. M., YOU, X. M., DENG, X. M., ZHANG, J. H., JIANG, L. & SUN, X. J. (2009). Hydrogen-rich saline reduces lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 381, 602-5.

MATCHETT, G. A., FATHALI, N., HASEGAWA, Y., JADHAV, V., OSTROWSKI, R. P., MARTIN, R. D., DOROTTA, I. R., SUN, X. & ZHANG, J. H. (2009). Hydrogen gas is ineffective in moderate and severe neonatal hypoxia-ischemia rat models. Brain Research 1259, 90-7.

SUN, Q., KANG, Z. M., CAI, J. M., LIU, W. W., LIU, Y., ZHANG, J. H., DENOBLE, P. J., TAO, H. Y. & SUN, X. J. (2009). Hydrogen-Rich Saline Protects Myocardium Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats. Experimental Biology and Medicine 234, 1212-1219.

ZHENG, X., MAO, Y., CAI, J., LI, Y., LIU, W., SUN, P., ZHANG, J. H., SUN, X. & YUAN, H. (2009). Hydrogen-rich saline protects against intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Free Radic Res 43, 478-84.

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KAJIYA, M., SATO, K., SILVA, M. J., OUHARA, K., DO, P. M., SHANMUGAM, K. T. & KAWAI, T. (2009). Hydrogen from intestinal bacteria is protective for Concanavalin A-induced hepatitis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 386, 316-21.

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XIANG, L., TAN, J. W., HUANG, L. J., JIA, L., LIU, Y. Q., ZHAO, Y. Q., WANG, K. & DONG, J. H. (2012). Inhalation of hydrogen gas reduces liver injury during major hepatotectomy in swine. World Journal of Gastroenterology 18, 5197-5204.

KOYAMA, Y., TAURA, K., HATANO, E., TANABE, K., YAMAMOTO, G., NAKAMURA, K., YAMANAKA, K., KITAMURA, K., NARITA, M., NAGATA, H., YANAGIDA, A., IIDA, T., IWAISAKO, K., FUJINAWA, H. & UEMOTO, S. (2013). Effects of Oral Intake of Hydrogen Water on Liver Fibrogenesis in Mice. Hepatol Res.

LIU, G. D., ZHANG, H., WANG, L., HAN, Q., ZHOU, S. F. & LIU, P. (2013). Molecular hydrogen regulates the expression of miR-9, miR-21 and miR-199 in LPS-activated retinal microglia cells. Int J Ophthalmol 6, 280-5.

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