Molecular hydrogen in water


Molecular Hydrogen Research - Peer Reviewed Studies

hydrogen research

Over 500 peer-reviewed articles (covering 150+ disease models) demonstrate molecular hydrogen to have therapeutic potential or benefit in essentially every organ of the body. The articles about the benefits of molecular hydrogen and molecular hydrogen water below are just a sampling and are organized by organ topic, disease, or mechanism of action. Each article listed can be found online. If you are investigating the research on molecular hydrogen for the first time, we recommend reviewing the link immediately below which will take you to an excellent peer-reviewed summary of all the research.

Comprehensive Review on Benefits of Diatomic Hydrogen used in Water - US National Library of Medicine >>> Here

Bones, Brain, Cancer, Eye & Ear, Antioxidant, Reviews, Heart, Human Studies, Ischemia, Kidney,
Lung & Other Organs, Metabolic Syndrome, Intestine, Skin, Radiation, Spine Pancreatitis, Safety

Bones


  • KAWASAKI, H., GUAN, J. J. & TAMAMA, K. (2010). Hydrogen gas treatment prolongs replicative lifespan of bone marrow multipotential stromal cells in vitro while preserving differentiation and paracrine potentials. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 397, 608-613.
  • FUJITA, R., TANAKA, Y., SAIHARA, Y., YAMAKITA, M., ANDO, D. & KOYAMA, K. (2011). Effect of molecular hydrogen saturated alkaline electrolyzed water on disuse muscle atrophy in gastrocnemius muscle. Journal of Physiological Anthropology 30, 195-201.
  • HANAOKA, T., KAMIMURA, N., YOKOTA, T., TAKAI, S. & OHTA, S. (2011). Molecular hydrogen protects chondrocytes from oxidative stress and indirectly alters gene expressions through reducing peroxynitrite derived from nitric oxide. Medical Gas Research 1, 18.
  • ITOH, T., HAMADA, N., TERAZAWA, R., ITO, M., OHNO, K., ICHIHARA, M. & NOZAWA, Y. (2011). Molecular hydrogen inhibits lipopolysaccharide/interferon gamma-induced nitric oxide production through modulation of signal transduction in macrophages. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 411, 143-9.
  • KUBOTA, M., SHIMMURA, S., KUBOTA, S., MIYASHITA, H., KATO, N., NODA, K., OZAWA, Y., USUI, T., ISHIDA, S., UMEZAWA, K., KURIHARA, T. & TSUBOTA, K. (2011). Hydrogen and N-acetyl-L-cysteine rescue oxidative stress-induced angiogenesis in a mouse corneal alkali-burn model. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 52, 427-33.
  • LEKIC, T., MANAENKO, A., ROLLAND, W., FATHALI, N., PETERSON, M., TANG, J. & ZHANG, J. H. (2011). Protective effect of hydrogen gas therapy after germinal matrix hemorrhage in neonatal rats. Acta Neurochir Suppl 111, 237-41.
  • TAKEUCHI, S., WADA, K., NAGATANI, K., OSADA, H., OTANI, N. & NAWASHIRO, H. (2012). Hydrogen may inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation: an ex vivo and in vivo study. Internal Medicine 51, 1309-13.
  • XU, Z., ZHOU, J., CAI, J., ZHU, Z., SUN, X. & JIANG, C. (2012). Anti-inflammation effects of hydrogen saline in LPS activated macrophages and carrageenan induced paw oedema. J Inflamm (Lond) 9, 2.
  • CAI, W. W., ZHANG, M. H., YU, Y. S. & CAI, J. H. (2013). Treatment with hydrogen molecule alleviates TNFalpha-induced cell injury in osteoblast. Mol Cell Biochem 373, 1-9.
  • 10. GUO, J. D., LI, L., SHI, Y. M., WANG, H. D. & HOU, S. X. (2013). Hydrogen water consumption prevents osteopenia in ovariectomized rats. Br J Pharmacol 168, 1412-20.
  • 11. SUN, Y., SHUANG, F., CHEN, D. M. & ZHOU, R. B. (2013). Treatment of hydrogen molecule abates oxidative stress and alleviates bone loss induced by modeled microgravity in rats. Osteoporos Int24, 969-78.

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Brain


  • T. KASHIWAGI, T. H., S. KABAYAMA, M. TAKAKI, K. TERUYA, Y. KATAKURA, K. OTUBO, S. MORISAWA, S. SHIRAHATA. (2005). Suppression of Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis of Neuronal Cells by Electrolyzed-Reduced Water. Animal Cell Technology Meets Genomics 2, 257-260.
  • NAKAO, A., KACZOROWSKI, D. J., ZUCKERBRAUN, B. S., LEI, J., FALEO, G., DEGUCHI, K., MCCURRY, K. R., BILLIAR, T. R. & KANNO, S. (2008). Galantamine and carbon monoxide protect brain microvascular endothelial cells by heme oxygenase-1 induction. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 367, 674-9.
  • SATO, Y., KAJIYAMA, S., AMANO, A., KONDO, Y., SASAKI, T., HANDA, S., TAKAHASHI, R., FUKUI, M., HASEGAWA, G., NAKAMURA, N., FUJINAWA, H., MORI, T., OHTA, M., OBAYASHI, H., MARUYAMA, N. & ISHIGAMI, A. (2008). Hydrogen-rich pure water prevents superoxide formation in brain slices of vitamin C-depleted SMP30/GNL knockout mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 375, 346-350.
  • FU, Y., ITO, M., FUJITA, Y., ITO, M., ICHIHARA, M., MASUDA, A., SUZUKI, Y., MAESAWA, S., KAJITA, Y., HIRAYAMA, M., OHSAWA, I., OHTA, S. & OHNO, K. (2009). Molecular hydrogen is protective against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nigrostriatal degeneration in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease. Neuroscience Letters 453, 81–85.
  • FUJITA, K., SEIKE, T., YUTSUDO, N., OHNO, M., YAMADA, H., YAMAGUCHI, H., SAKUMI, K., YAMAKAWA, Y., KIDO, M. A., TAKAKI, A., KATAFUCHI, T., TANAKA, Y., NAKABEPPU, Y. & NODA, M. (2009). Hydrogen in drinking water reduces dopaminergic neuronal loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. PLoS One 4, e7247.
  • KUROKI, C., TOKUMARU, O., OGATA, K., KOGA, H. & YOKOI, I. (2009). Neuroprotective effects of hydrogen gas on brain in three types of stress models: alpha P-31-NMR study. Neuroscience Research 65, S124-S124.
  • NAGATA, K., NAKASHIMA-KAMIMURA, N., MIKAMI, T., OHSAWA, I. & OHTA, S. (2009). Consumption of Molecular Hydrogen Prevents the Stress-Induced Impairments in Hippocampus-Dependent Learning Tasks during Chronic Physical Restraint in Mice. Neuropsychopharmacology 34, 501-508.
  • BARI, F., OLAH, O., NEMETH, I., HUGYECZ, M. & DOMOKI, F. (2010). Inhalation of Hydrogen Gas Protects Cerebrovascular Reactivity Against Moderate but Not Severe Perinatal Hypoxic Injury in Newborn Piglets. Stroke 41, E323-E323.
  • DOMOKI, F., OLAH, O., ZIMMERMANN, A., NEMETH, I., TOTH-SZUKI, V., HUGYECZ, M., TEMESVARI, P. & BART, F. (2010). Hydrogen is Neuroprotective and Preserves Cerebrovascular Reactivity in Asphyxiated Newborn Pigs. Pediatric Research 68, 387-392.
  • GU, Y., HUANG, C. S., INOUE, T., YAMASHITA, T., ISHIDA, T., KANG, K. M. & NAKAO, A. (2010). Drinking Hydrogen Water Ameliorated Cognitive Impairment in Senescence-Accelerated Mice. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 46, 269-276.
  • JI, X., LIU, W., XIE, K., QU, Y., CHAO, X., CHEN, T., ZHOU, J. & FEI, Z. (2010). Beneficial effects of hydrogen gas in a rat model of traumatic brain injury via reducing oxidative stress. Brain Research 1354, 196-205.
  • LI, J., WANG, C., ZHANG, J. H., CAI, J. M., CAO, Y. P. & SUN, X. J. (2010). Hydrogen-rich saline improves memory function in a rat model of amyloid-beta-induced Alzheimer’s disease by reduction of oxidative stress. Brain Res 1328, 152-161.
  • UEDA, Y., NAKAJIMA, A. & OIKAWA, T. (2010). Hydrogen-Related Enhancement of In Vivo Antioxidant Ability in the Brain of Rats Fed Coral Calcium Hydride. Neurochemical Research 35, 1510-1515.
  • YOKOI, I. (2010). Neuroprotective effects of hydrogen gas on brain in three types of stress models: a P-31 NMR and ESR study. Neuroscience Research 68, E320-E320.
  • ECKERMANN, J. M., CHEN, W., JADHAV, V., HSU, F. P., COLOHAN, A. R., TANG, J. & ZHANG, J. H. (2011). Hydrogen is neuroprotective against surgically induced brain injury. Medical Gas Research 1, 7.
  • HUGYECZ, M., MRACSKO, E., HERTELENDY, P., FARKAS, E., DOMOKI, F. & BARI, F. (2011). Hydrogen supplemented air inhalation reduces changes of prooxidant enzyme and gap junction protein levels after transient global cerebral ischemia in the rat hippocampus. Brain Research 1404, 31-8.
  • KOBAYASHI, H., OTANI, N., NAWASHIRO, H., SHIMA, K., SUZUKI, S. & UENOYAMA, M. (2011). Effects of Hydrogen Gas in a Mouse Cold Induced Brain Injury Model. Journal of Neurotrauma 28, A64-A64.
  • KUROKI, C., TOKUMARU, O., OGATA, K. & YOKOI, I. (2011). Neuroprotective effects of hydrogen gas on brain in three types of stress models: A P-31-NMR and ESR study. Neuroscience Research 71, E406-E406.
  • LIU, W., CHEN, O., CHEN, C., WU, B., TANG, J. & ZHANG, J. H. (2011). Protective effects of hydrogen on fetal brain injury during maternal hypoxia. Acta Neurochir Suppl 111, 307-11.
  • MANAENKO, A., LEKIC, T., MA, Q., OSTROWSKI, R. P., ZHANG, J. H. & TANG, J. (2011). Hydrogen inhalation is neuroprotective and improves functional outcomes in mice after intracerebral hemorrhage. Acta Neurochir Suppl 111, 179-83.
  • ONO, H., NISHIJIMA, Y., ADACHI, N., TACHIBANA, S., CHITOKU, S., MUKAIHARA, S., SAKAMOTO, M., KUDO, Y., NAKAZAWA, J., KANEKO, K. & NAWASHIRO, H. (2011). Improved brain MRI indices in the acute brain stem infarct sites treated with hydroxyl radical scavengers, Edaravone and hydrogen, as compared to Edaravone alone. A non-controlled study. Medical Gas Research 1, 12.
  • SHEN, L., WANG, J., LIU, K., WANG, C., WU, H., SUN, Q., SUN, X. & JING, H. (2011). Hydrogen-rich saline is cerebroprotective in a rat model of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Neurochemical Research 36, 1501-11.
  • SUN, Q., CAI, J., ZHOU, J., TAO, H., ZHANG, J. H., ZHANG, W. & SUN, X. J. (2011). Hydrogen-rich saline reduces delayed neurologic sequelae in experimental carbon monoxide toxicity. Critical Care Medicine 39, 765-9.
  • WANG, C., LI, J., LIU, Q., YANG, R., ZHANG, J. H., CAO, Y. P. & SUN, X. J. (2011). Hydrogen-rich saline reduces oxidative stress and inflammation by inhibit of JNK and NF-kappaB activation in a rat model of amyloid-beta-induced Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroscience Letters 491, 127-32.
  • YAN, H., KASHIWAKI, T., HAMASAKI, T., KINJO, T., TERUYA, K., KABAYAMA, S. & SHIRAHATA, S. (2011). The neuroprotective effects of electrolyzed reduced water and its model water containing molecular hydrogen and Pt nanoparticles. BMC Proc 5 Suppl 8, P69.
  • HOU, Z., LUO, W., SUN, X., HAO, S., ZHANG, Y., XU, F., WANG, Z. & LIU, B. (2012). Hydrogen-rich saline protects against oxidative damage and cognitive deficits after mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Res Bull 88, 560-5.
  • ITO, M., HIRAYAMA, M., YAMAI, K., GOTO, S., ICHIHARA, M. & OHNO, K. (2012). Drinking hydrogen water and intermittent hydrogen gas exposure, but not lactulose or continuous hydrogen gas exposure, prevent 6-hydorxydopamine-induced Parkinson’s disease in rats. Med Gas Res 2, 15.
  • JI, X., TIAN, Y., XIE, K., LIU, W., QU, Y. & FEI, Z. (2012). Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline in a rat model of traumatic brain injury via reducing oxidative stress. Journal of Surgical Research 178, e9-16.
  • SPULBER, S., EDOFF, K., HONG, L., MORISAWA, S., SHIRAHATA, S. & CECCATELLI, S. (2012). Molecular hydrogen reduces LPS-induced neuroinflammation and promotes recovery from sickness behaviour in mice. PLoS One 7, e42078.
  • WANG, W., LI, Y., REN, J., XIA, F., LI, J. & ZHANG, Z. (2012). Hydrogen rich saline reduces immune-mediated brain injury in rats with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Neurological Research 34, 1007-15.
  • ZHAN, Y., CHEN, C., SUZUKI, H., HU, Q., ZHI, X. & ZHANG, J. H. (2012). Hydrogen gas ameliorates oxidative stress in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats. Critical Care Medicine 40, 1291-6.
  • ZHOU, J., CHEN, Y., HUANG, G. Q., LI, J., WU, G. M., LIU, L., BAI, Y. P. & WANG, J. (2012). Hydrogen-rich saline reverses oxidative stress, cognitive impairment, and mortality in rats submitted to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture. Journal of Surgical Research 178, 390-400.
  • ZHUANG, Z., ZHOU, M. L., YOU, W. C., ZHU, L., MA, C. Y., SUN, X. J. & SHI, J. X. (2012). Hydrogen-rich saline alleviates early brain injury via reducing oxidative stress and brain edema following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rabbits. BMC Neurosci 13, 47.
  • FENG, Y., WANG, R., XU, J., SUN, J., XU, T., GU, Q. & WU, X. (2013). Hydrogen-rich saline prevents early neurovascular dysfunction resulting from inhibition of oxidative stress in STZ-diabetic rats. Curr Eye Res 38, 396-404.
  • MANAENKO, A., LEKIC, T., MA, Q., ZHANG, J. H. & TANG, J. (2013). Hydrogen inhalation ameliorated mast cell-mediated brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice. Critical Care Medicine 41, 1266-75.
  • YONAMINE, R., SATOH, Y., KODAMA, M., ARAKI, Y. & KAZAMA, T. (2013). Coadministration of hydrogen gas as part of the carrier gas mixture suppresses neuronal apoptosis and subsequent behavioral deficits caused by neonatal exposure to sevoflurane in mice. Anesthesiology 118, 105-13.

 

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Cancer


  • MR TAKAAKI KOMATSU, S. K., AKIRA HAYASHIDA, HIROFUMA NOGAMI, DR KIICHIRO TERUYA, YOSHINORI KATAKURA, KAZUMITI OTSUBO, SHINKATSU MORISAWA, PROF SANETAKA SHIRAHATA. (2001). Suppressive Effect of Electrolyzed-Reduced Water on the Growth of Cancer Cells and Microorganisms. Animal Cell Technology: From Target to Market 1, 220-223.
  • S. SHIRAHATA, S. K., K. KUSUMOTO, M. GOTOH, K. TERUYA, K. OTSUBO, J. S. MORISAWA, H. HAYASHI, K. KATAKURA. (2002). Electrolyzed Reduced Water Which Can Scavenge Active Oxygen Species Supresses Cell Growth and Regulates Gene Expression of Animal Cells. New Developments and New Applications in Animal Cell Technology, 93-96.
  • KOMATSU, T., KATAKURA, Y., TERUYA, K., OTSUBO, K., MORISAWA, S., & & SHIRAHATA, S. (2003). Electrolyzed reduced water induces differentiation in K-562 human leukemia cells. Animal cell technology: Basic & applied aspects, 387-391.
  • JUN, Y., TERUYA, K., KATAKURA, Y., OTSUBO, K., MORISAWA, S. & SHIRAHATA, S. (2004). Suppression of invasion of cancer cells and angiogenesis by electrolyzed reduced water. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Animal 40, 79A-79A.
  • LEE, K.-J. (2004). Anticancer Effect of Alkaline Reduced Water. J Int Soc Life Inf Sci 22, 302-305.
  • NISHIKAWA, R., TERUYA, K., KATAKURA, Y., OTSUBO, K., MORISAWA, S. & SHIRAHATA, S. (2004). Suppression of two-stage cell transformation by electrolyzed reduced water/platinum nanocolloids. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Animal 40, 79A-79A.
  • NISHIKAWA, R., TERUYA, K., KATAKURA, Y., OSADA, K., HAMASAKI, T., KASHIWAGI, T., KOMATSU, T., LI, Y., YE, J., ICHIKAWA, A., OTSUBO, K., MORISAWA, S., XU, Q. & SHIRAHATA, S. (2005). Electrolyzed Reduced Water Supplemented with Platinum Nanoparticles Suppresses Promotion of Two-stage Cell Transformation. Cytotechnology 47, 97-105.
  • RYUHEI NISHIKAWA, F. O. A. K. T., YOSHINORI KATAKURA, KAZUMICHI OTSUBO, SHINKATSU MORISAWA, QIANGHUA XU, SANETAKA SHIRAHATA. (2006). Suppression of two-stage cell transformation by electrolyzed reduced water containing platinum nanoparticles. Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects 14.
  • SAITOH, Y., OKAYASU, H., XIAO, L., HARATA, Y. & MIWA, N. (2008). Neutral pH Hydrogen-Enriched Electrolyzed Water Achieves Tumor-Preferential Clonal Growth Inhibition Over Normal Cells and Tumor Invasion Inhibition Concurrently With Intracellular Oxidant Repression. Oncology Research 17, 247-255.
  • YE, J., LI, Y., HAMASAKI, T., NAKAMICHI, N., KOMATSU, T., KASHIWAGI, T., TERUYA, K., NISHIKAWA, R., KAWAHARA, T., OSADA, K., TOH, K., ABE, M., TIAN, H., KABAYAMA, S., OTSUBO, K., MORISAWA, S., KATAKURA, Y. & SHIRAHATA, S. (2008). Inhibitory effect of electrolyzed reduced water on tumor angiogenesis. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 31, 19-26.
  • SAITOH, Y., YOSHIMURA, Y., NAKANO, K. & MIWA, N. (2009). Platinum nanocolloid-supplemented hydrogen dissolved water inhibits growth of human tongue carcinoma cells preferentially over normal cells. Exp Oncol 31, 156-62.
  • TSAI, C. F., HSU, Y. W., CHEN, W. K., HO, Y. C. & LU, F. J. (2009). Enhanced induction of mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells due to electrolyzed-reduced water and glutathione. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 73, 280-7.
  • ASADA, R., KAGEYAMA, K., TANAKA, H., MATSUI, H., KIMURA, M., SAITOH, Y. & MIWA, N. (2010). Antitumor effects of nano-bubble hydrogen-dissolved water are enhanced by coexistent platinum colloid and the combined hyperthermia with apoptosis-like cell death. Oncol Rep 24, 1463-70.
  • KENSUKE NAKANISHI, T. H., TAKURO NAKAMURA,, MASUMI ABE, K. T., YOSHINORI KATAKURA, & SHINKATSU MORISAWA, A. S. S. (2010). growth suppression of HL60 and L6 cells by atomic hydrogen.
  • MATSUSHITA, T., KUSAKABE, Y., KITAMURA, A., OKADA, S. & MURASE, K. (2011). Investigation of protective effect of hydrogen-rich water against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging. Jpn J Radiol 29, 503-12.
  • AKIO KAGAWA, K. K., MASAYUKI MIZUMOTO, YUTAKA TAGAWA, YOICHI MASIKO. (2012). Influence of Hydrogen Discharged from Palladium Base Hydrogen Storage Alloys on Cancer Cells. Materials Science Forum 706, 520-525.
  • KINJO, T., YE, J., YAN, H. X., HAMASAKI, T., NAKANISHI, H., TOH, K., NAKAMICHI, N., KABAYAMA, S., TERUYA, K. & SHIRAHATA, S. (2012). Suppressive effects of electrochemically reduced water on matrix metalloproteinase-2 activities and in vitro invasion of human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. Cytotechnology 64, 357-371.
  • MAKOTO MATSUZAKI, A. K., AIKO MOTOISHI, KUNIHIKO TANAKA, MASATAKA YAMAMOTO, YUTAKA TAGAWA. (2013). Mechanism of Cancer Cell Death Induced by Hydrogen Discharged from Palladium Base Hydrogen Storage Alloy. Materials Science and Chemical Engineering
  • KANG, K.-M., KANG, Y.-N., CHOI, I.-B., GU, Y., KAWAMURA, T., TOYODA, Y. & NAKAO, A. (2011). Effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on the quality of life of patients treated with radiotherapy for liver tumors. Medical Gas Research 1, 11.
  • NAKASHIMA-KAMIMURA, N., MORI, T., OHSAWA, I., ASOH, S. & OHTA, S. (2009). Molecular hydrogen alleviates nephrotoxicity induced by an anti-cancer drug cisplatin without compromising anti-tumor activity in mice. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol.

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Eye & Ear


  • KIKKAWA, Y. S., NAKAGAWA, T., HORIE, R. T. & ITO, J. (2009). Hydrogen protects auditory hair cells from free radicals. Neuroreport 20, 689-94.
  • OHARAZAWA, H., TSUTOMU IGARASHI, TAKASHI YOKOTA, HIROAKI FUJII, HISAHARU SUZUKI, MITSURU MACHIDE, HIROSHI TAKAHASHI, SHIGEO OHTA, AND IKUROH OHSAWA. (2010). Protection of the retina by rapid diffusion of hydrogen: administration of hydrogen-loaded eye drops in retinal ischemia–reperfusion injury. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 51, 487-492.
  • OHARAZAWA, H., IGARASHI, T., YOKOTA, T., FUJII, H., SUZUKI, H., MACHIDE, M., TAKAHASHI, H., OHTA, S. & OHSAWA, I. (2010). Protection of the Retina by Rapid Diffusion of Hydrogen: Administration of Hydrogen-Loaded Eye Drops in Retinal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 51, 487-492.
  • TAURA, A., KIKKAWA, Y. S., NAKAGAWA, T. & ITO, J. (2010). Hydrogen protects vestibular hair cells from free radicals. Acta Oto-Laryngologica 130, 95-100.
  • LIN, Y., KASHIO, A., SAKAMOTO, T., SUZUKAWA, K., KAKIGI, A. & YAMASOBA, T. (2011). Hydrogen in drinking water attenuates noise-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs. Neuroscience Letters 487, 12-16.
  • FENG, M., WANG, X. H., YANG, X. B., XIAO, Q. & JIANG, F. G. (2012). Protective effect of saturated hydrogen saline against blue light-induced retinal damage in rats. Int J Ophthalmol 5, 151-7.
  • HUANG, L., ZHAO, S., ZHANG, J. H. & SUN, X. (2012). Hydrogen saline treatment attenuates hyperoxia-induced retinopathy by inhibition of oxidative stress and reduction of VEGF expression. Ophthalmic Res 47, 122-7.
  • QU, J., GAN, Y. N., XIE, K. L., LIU, W. B., WANG, Y. F., HEI, R. Y., MI, W. J. & QIU, J. H. (2012). Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates ouabain-induced auditory neuropathy in gerbils. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 33, 445-451.
  • QU, J., LI, X., WANG, J., MI, W., XIE, K. & QIU, J. (2012). Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates cisplatin-induced ototoxicity via reducing oxidative stress. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 76, 111-5.
  • ZHOU, Y., ZHENG, H., RUAN, F., CHEN, X., ZHENG, G., KANG, M., ZHANG, Q. & SUN, X. (2012). Hydrogen-rich saline alleviates experimental noise-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs. Neuroscience 209, 47-53.

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H2 as Antioxidant


  • SHIRAHATA, S., KABAYAMA, S., NAKANO, M., MIURA, T., KUSUMOTO, K., GOTOH, M., HAYASHI, H., OTSUBO, K., MORISAWA, S. & KATAKURA, Y. (1997). Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidative damage. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 234, 269-274.
  • HANAOKA, K., SUN, D. X., LAWRENCE, R., KAMITANI, Y. & FERNANDES, G. (2004). The mechanism of the enhanced antioxidant effects against superoxide anion radicals of reduced water produced by electrolysis. Biophysical Chemistry 107, 71-82.
  • HIRAOKA, A., TAKEMOTO, M., SUZUKI, T., SHINOHARA, A., CHIBA, M., SHIRAO, M. & YOSHIMURA, Y. (2004). Studies on the properties and real existence of aqueous solution systems that are assumed to have antioxidant activities by the action of “active hydrogen”‘. Journal of Health Science 50, 456-465.
  • PARK, E. J. (2005). Protective effect of electrolyzed reduced water on the paraquat-induced oxidative damage of human lymphocyte DNA. Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry 48, 155-160.
  • YANAGIHARA, T., ARAI, K., MIYAMAE, K., SATO, B., SHUDO, T., YAMADA, M. & AOYAMA, M. (2005). Electrolyzed hydrogen-saturated water for drinking use elicits an antioxidative effect: a feeding test with rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 69, 1985-7.
  • LEE, M. Y., KIM, Y. K., RYOO, K. K., LEE, Y. B. & PARK, E. J. (2006). Electrolyzed-reduced water protects against oxidative damage to DNA, RNA, and protein. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 135, 133-44.
  • OHSAWA, I., ISHIKAWA, M., TAKAHASHI, K., WATANABE, M., NISHIMAKI, K., YAMAGATA, K., KATSURA, K., KATAYAMA, Y., ASOH, S. & OHTA, S. (2007). Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Nat Med 13, 688-694.
  • HANXU YAN, H. T., TAKEKI HAMASAKI, MASUMI ABE, NOBORU NAKAMICHI, KIICHIRO TERUYA, YOSHINORI KATAKURA, SHINKATSU MORISAWA, SANETAKA SHIRAHATA. (2010). electrolyzed reduced water prolongs caenorhabditis elegans lifespan. Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects 16, 289-293.
  • HIRAOKA, A., INABA, H., SUZUKI, E., KASAI, K., SUZUKI, H., SHINOHARA, A., SHIRAO, M., KUBO, K. & YOSHIMURA, Y. (2010). In Vitro Physicochemical Properties of Neutral Aqueous Solution Systems (Water Products as Drinks) Containing Hydrogen Gas, 2-Carboxyethyl Germanium Sesquioxide, and Platinum Nanocolloid as Additives. Journal of Health Science 56, 167-174.
  • YAN, H. X., TIAN, H. Z., KINJO, T., HAMASAKI, T., TOMIMATSU, K., NAKAMICHI, N., TERUYA, K., KABAYAMA, S. & SHIRAHATA, S. (2010). Extension of the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans by the Use of Electrolyzed Reduced Water. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 74, 2011-2015.
  • BERJAK, P., SERSHEN, VARGHESE, B. & PAMMENTER, N. W. (2011). Cathodic amelioration of the adverse effects of oxidative stress accompanying procedures necessary for cryopreservation of embryonic axes of recalcitrant-seeded species. Seed Science Research 21, 187-203.
  • YAN, H., KINJO, T., TIAN, H., HAMASAKI, T., TERUYA, K., KABAYAMA, S. & SHIRAHATA, S. (2011). Mechanism of the lifespan extension of Caenorhabditis elegans by electrolyzed reduced water–participation of Pt nanoparticles. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 75, 1295-9.
  • PARK, S. K., KIM, J. J., YU, A. R., LEE, M. Y. & PARK, S. K. (2012). Electrolyzed-reduced water confers increased resistance to environmental stresses. Molecular & Cellular Toxicology 8, 241-247.
  • JIN, Q., ZHU, K., CUI, W., XIE, Y., HAN, B. & SHEN, W. (2013). Hydrogen gas acts as a novel bioactive molecule in enhancing plant tolerance to paraquat-induced oxidative stress via the modulation of heme oxygenase-1 signalling system. Plant Cell and Environment 36, 956-69.
  • QIAN, L., MEI, K., SHEN, J. & CAI, J. (2013). Administration of hydrogen-rich saline protects mice from lethal acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). Transplantation 95, 658-62.

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Reviews


  • KUMON, K. (1997). What Is Functional Water? Artificial Organs 21, 2-4.
  • OKOUCHI, S., SUZUKI, M., SUGANO, K., KAGAMIMORI, S. & IKEDA, S. (2002). Water desirable for the human body in terms of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) to pH relationship. Journal of Food Science 67, 1594-1598.
  • SHIRAHATA, S. A. N. E. T. A. K. A. (2002). Reduced water for prevention of diseases. Animal Cell Technology: Basic and Applied Aspects 12, 25-30.
  • BALL, J. (2007). Recently published papers: More about EGDT, experimental therapies and some inconvenient truths. Critical Care 11.
  • WOOD, K. C. & GLADWIN, M. T. (2007). The hydrogen highway to reperfusion therapy. Nat Med 13, 673-674.
  • OHTA, S. (2008). [Hydrogen gas and hydrogen water act as a therapeutic and preventive antioxidant with a novel concept]. Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi 45, 355-62.
  • Jun, X.S. and H. Zhang, Hydrogen-an endogenous antioxidant in the body. Academic Journal of Second Military Medical University, 2008. 28(3): p. 233-235.
  • MILTON, S. L. (2009). Hydrogen Saline a Real Gas. Journal of Experimental Biology 212, v-vi.
  • NAKAO, A., SUGIMOTO, R., BILLIAR, T. R. & MCCURRY, K. R. (2009). Therapeutic Antioxidant Medical Gas. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 44, 1-13.
  • GEORGE, J. F. & AGARWAL, A. (2010). Hydrogen: another gas with therapeutic potential. Kidney International 77, 85-87.
  • GONCHARUK, V. V., BAGRII, V. A., MEL’NIK, L. A., CHEBOTAREVA, R. D. & BASHTAN, S. Y. (2010). The use of redox potential in water treatment processes. Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology 32, 1-9.
  • HONG, Y., CHEN, S. & ZHANG, J. M. (2010). Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: a review of clinical and experimental studies. Journal of International Medical Research 38, 1893-903.
  • HUANG, C. S., KAWAMURA, T., TOYODA, Y. & NAKAO, A. (2010). Recent advances in hydrogen research as a therapeutic medical gas. Free Radical Research 44, 971-982.
  • LIU, C., CUI, J. G., SUN, Q. & CAI, J. M. (2010). Hydrogen therapy may be an effective and specific novel treatment for acute radiation syndrome. Medical Hypotheses 74, 145-146.
  • QIAN, L. R., LI, B. L., CAI, J. M. & GAO, F. (2010). The Hypothesis of an Effective Safe and Novel Radioprotective Agent Hydrogen-rich Solution. West Indian Medical Journal 59, 122-124.
  • CHUAI, Y., ZHAO, L., NI, J., SUN, D., CUI, J., LI, B., QIAN, L., GAO, F. & CAI, J. (2011). A possible prevention strategy of radiation pneumonitis: combine radiotherapy with aerosol inhalation of hydrogen-rich solution. Medical Science Monitor 17, HY1-4.
  • JUN CHEN, B. Z., MINGCHAO LI, TAO QI, ZHENG CHEN, XUEJUN SUN, XIAO CHEN (2011). Hydrogen therapy may be a promising, safe and effective treatment for diabetic erectile dysfunction: a hypothesis. Alternative Medicine Studies.
  • OHTA, S. (2011). Recent progress toward hydrogen medicine: potential of molecular hydrogen for preventive and therapeutic applications. Curr Pharm Des 17, 2241-52.
  • OHTA, S., NAKAO, A. & OHNO, K. (2011). The 2011 Medical Molecular Hydrogen Symposium: An Inaugural Symposium of the Journal Medical Gas Research Medical Gas Research 1, 10.
  • OHTA, S., NAKAO, A. & OHNO, K. (2011). The 2011 Medical Molecular Hydrogen Symposium: An inaugural symposium of the journal Medical Gas Research. Med Gas Res 1, 10.
  • SCHOENFELD, M. P., ANSARI, R. R., ZAKRAJSEK, J. F., BILLIAR, T. R., TOYODA, Y., WINK, D. A. & NAKAO, A. (2011). Hydrogen therapy may reduce the risks related to radiation-induced oxidative stress in space flight. Medical Hypotheses 76, 117-8.
  • YONGCHUN SHEN, T. Y., TAO WANG, FUQIANG WEN. (2011). Hydrogen gas: a novel antioxidant for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of Medical Colleges of PLA 26, 94-97.
  • GHANIZADEH, A. (2012). Hydrogen as a novel hypothesized emerging treatment for oxidative stress in autism. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 16, 1313-4.
  • GHANIZADEH, A. (2012). Physical exercise and intermittent administration of lactulose may improve autism symptoms through hydrogen production. Medical Gas Research 2, 19.
  • L, D. & WANG, W. C. (2012). Can hydrogen retard the progression of osteoarthritis? African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 6, 352-354.
  • OHNO, K., ITO, M. & ICHIHARA, M. (2012). Molecular hydrogen as an emerging therapeutic medical gas for neurodegenerative and other diseases. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2012, 353152.
  • OHTA, S. (2012). Molecular hydrogen is a novel antioxidant to efficiently reduce oxidative stress with potential for the improvement of mitochondrial diseases. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1820, 586-94.
  • OSTOJIC, S. M. (2012). Serum alkalinization and hydrogen-rich water in healthy men. Mayo Clin Proc 87, 501-2.
  • RHEEM, K. E., LIM, Y. R., LEE, B. S., LEE, S. K., SEONG, K. M., HYUN, D. H. & MIN, K. J. (2012). Does alkaline-reduced hexagonal water delay the aging process in Drosophila? Geriatr Gerontol Int 12, 151-4.
  • SCHOENFELD, M. P., ANSARI, R. R., NAKAO, A. & WINK, D. (2012). A hypothesis on biological protection from space radiation through the use of new therapeutic gases as medical counter measures. Medical Gas Research 2, 8.
  • SHI, P. & SUN, W. (2012). A hypothesis on chemical mechanism of the effect of hydrogen. Med Gas Res 2, 17.
  • SHIRAHATA, S., HAMASAKI, T. & TERUYA, K. (2012). Advanced research on the health benefit of reduced water. Trends in Food Science & Technology 23, 124-131.
  • SHULIN LIU, X. S. A. H. T. (2012). Hydrogen from a biologically inert gas to a unique antioxidant.
  • SIMON, A. R. (2012). Hydrogen-supplemented drinking water, just soda or an elixir of life? Transplant International 25, 1211-1212.
  • ZHANG, J. Y., LIU, C., ZHOU, L., QU, K., WANG, R. T., TAI, M. H., LEI, J. C. W. L., WU, Q. F. & WANG, Z. X. (2012). A Review of Hydrogen as a New Medical Therapy. Hepato-Gastroenterology 59, 1026-1032.
  • DIXON, B. J., TANG, J. & ZHANG, J. H. (2013). The evolution of molecular hydrogen: a noteworthy potential therapy with clinical significance. Med Gas Res 3, 10.
  • GHANIZADEH, A. & BERK, M. (2013). Molecular hydrogen: an overview of its neurobiological effects and therapeutic potential for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Med Gas Res 3, 11.
  • QU, J. & LU, X. (2013). Hydrogen: A promising novel treatment for hepatic encephalopathy? Free Radic Biol Med.

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Heart


  • WATANABE, T., KISHIKAWA, Y. & SHIRAI, W. (1997). Influence of alkaline ionized water on rat erythrocyte hexokinase activity and myocardium. J Toxicol Sci 22, 141-52.
  • WATANABE, T. & KISHIKAWA, Y. (1998). Degradation of myocardiac myosin and creatine kinase in rats given alkaline ionized water. J Vet Med Sci 60, 245-50.
  • WATANABE, T., SHIRAI, W., PAN, I., FUKUDA, Y., MURASUGI, E., SATO, T., KAMATA, H. & UWATOKO, K. (1998). Histopathological influence of alkaline ionized water on myocardial muscle of mother rats. J Toxicol Sci 23, 411-7.
  • QIAN, L. R., CAO, F., CUI, J. G., WANG, Y. C., HUANG, Y. C., CHUAI, Y. H., ZAHO, L. Q., JIANG, H. & CAI, J. M. (2010). The Potential Cardioprotective Effects of Hydrogen in Irradiated Mice. Journal of Radiation Research 51, 741-747.
  • HAYASHI, T., YOSHIOKA, T., HASEGAWA, K., MIYAMURA, M., MORI, T., UKIMURA, A., MATSUMURA, Y. & ISHIZAKA, N. (2011). Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates left ventricular remodeling induced by intermittent hypoxia in mice. American Journal of Physiology – Heart and Circulatory Physiology 301, H1062-9.
  • KASUYAMA, K., TOMOFUJI, T., EKUNI, D., TAMAKI, N., AZUMA, T., IRIE, K., ENDO, Y. & MORITA, M. (2011). Hydrogen-rich water attenuates experimental periodontitis in a rat model. J Clin Periodontol 38, 1085-90.
  • HAYASHIDA, K., SANO, M., KAMIMURA, N., YOKOTA, T., SUZUKI, M., MAEKAWA, Y., KAWAMURA, A., ABE, T., OHTA, S., FUKUDA, K. & HORI, S. (2012). H(2) gas improves functional outcome after cardiac arrest to an extent comparable to therapeutic hypothermia in a rat model. J Am Heart Assoc 1, e003459.
  • NODA, K., TANAKA, Y., SHIGEMURA, N., KAWAMURA, T., WANG, Y., MASUTANI, K., SUN, X., TOYODA, Y., BERMUDEZ, C. A. & NAKAO, A. (2012). Hydrogen-supplemented drinking water protects cardiac allografts from inflammation-associated deterioration. Transpl Int 25, 1213-22.
  • QIN, Z. X., YU, P., QIAN, D. H., SONG, M. B., TAN, H., YU, Y., LI, W., WANG, H., LIU, J., WANG, Q., SUN, X. J., JIANG, H., ZHU, J. K., LU, W. & HUANG, L. (2012). Hydrogen-rich saline prevents neointima formation after carotid balloon injury by suppressing ROS and the TNF-alpha/NF-kappaB pathway. Atherosclerosis 220, 343-50.
  • SAKAI, K., CHO, S., SHIBATA, I., YOSHITOMI, O., MAEKAWA, T. & SUMIKAWA, K. (2012). Inhalation of hydrogen gas protects against myocardial stunning and infarction in swine. Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal 46, 183-9.
  • SUN, Q., KAWAMURA, T., MASUTANI, K., PENG, X., STOLZ, D. B., PRIBIS, J. P., BILLIAR, T. R., SUN, X., BERMUDEZ, C. A., TOYODA, Y. & NAKAO, A. (2012). Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water inhibits intimal hyperplasia in arterialized vein grafts in rats. Cardiovasc Res 94, 144-53.
  • YOSHIDA, A., ASANUMA, H., SASAKI, H., SANADA, S., YAMAZAKI, S., ASANO, Y., SHINOZAKI, Y., MORI, H., SHIMOUCHI, A., SANO, M., ASAKURA, M., MINAMINO, T., TAKASHIMA, S., SUGIMACHI, M., MOCHIZUKI, N. & KITAKAZE, M. (2012). H(2) mediates cardioprotection via involvements of K(ATP) channels and permeability transition pores of mitochondria in dogs. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 26, 217-26.
  • FUJII, Y., SHIRAI, M., INAMORI, S., SHIMOUCHI, A., SONOBE, T., TSUCHIMOCHI, H., PEARSON, J. T., TAKEWA, Y., TATSUMI, E. & TAENAKA, Y. (2013). Insufflation of hydrogen gas restrains the inflammatory response of cardiopulmonary bypass in a rat model. Artif Organs 37, 136-41.
  • NAGATANI, K., TAKEUCHI, S., KOBAYASHI, H., OTANI, N., WADA, K., FUJITA, M., NAWASHIRO, H., TACHIBANA, S. & SHIMA, K. (2013). The Effect of Hydrogen Gas on a Mouse Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion. Brain Edema XV Acta Neurochirurgica Supplement

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Selected Human Studies


  • HUANG, K. C., YANG, C. C., LEE, K. T. & CHIEN, C. T. (2003). Reduced hemodialysis-induced oxidative stress in end-stage renal disease patients by electrolyzed reduced water. Kidney Int 64, 704-14.
  • HIRAOKA, A., SASAKI, S., YAMADA, T., SHINOHARA, A. & CHIBA, M. (2006). Effects of drinking a water product with anti-oxidant activities in vitro on the blood levels of biomarker substances for the oxidative stress. Journal of Health Science 52, 817-820.
  • HUANG, K. C., YANG, C. C., HSU, S. P., LEE, K. T., LIU, H. W., MORISAWA, S., OTSUBO, K. & CHIEN, C. T. (2006). Electrolyzed-reduced water reduced hemodialysis-induced erythrocyte impairment in end-stage renal disease patients. Kidney Int 70, 391-8.
  • LU, K. C., TSENG, C. F., YEUNG, L. K., HSU, S. P. & CHIEN, C. T. (2006). Electrolyzed reduced water attenuates hemodialysis-induced mononuclear cells apoptosis in end-stage renal disease patients. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 21, 200-201.
  • YEUNG, L. K., LU, K. C., TSENG, C. F., HSU, S. P. & CHIEN, C. T. (2006). Effect of electrolyzed reduced water hemodialysis on peripheral lymphocyte intracellular cytokine expression. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 21, 204-204.
  • KAJIYAMA, S., HASEGAWA, G., ASANO, M., HOSODA, H., FUKUI, M., NAKAMURA, N., KITAWAKI, J., IMAI, S., NAKANO, K., OHTA, M., ADACHI, T., OBAYASHI, H. & YOSHIKAWA, T. (2008). Supplementation of hydrogen-rich water improves lipid and glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Nutrition Research 28, 137–143.
  • KOYAMA K, T. Y., SAIHARA Y, ANDO D, GOTO Y, KATAYAMA A. (2008). Effect of hydrogen saturated alkaline electrolyzed water on urinary oxidative stress markers after an acute exercise: A randomized controlled trial. Anti-aging Med 4, 117-122.
  • NAKAYAMA, M., KABAYAMA, S., NAKANO, H., ZHU, W. J., TERAWAKI, H., NAKAYAMA, K., KATOH, K., SATOH, T. & ITO, S. (2009). Biological Effects of Electrolyzed Water in Hemodialysis. Nephron Clinical Practice 112, C9-C15.
  • HUANG, K. C., HSU, S. P., YANG, C. C., PU, O. Y., LEE, K. T., MORISAWA, S., OTSUBO, K. & CHIEN, C. T. (2010). Electrolysed-reduced water dialysate improves T-cell damage in end-stage renal disease patients with chronic haemodialysis. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 25, 2730-2737.
  • NAKAO, A., TOYODA, Y., SHARMA, P., EVANS, M. & GUTHRIE, N. (2010). Effectiveness of Hydrogen Rich Water on Antioxidant Status of Subjects with Potential Metabolic Syndrome-An Open Label Pilot Study. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 46, 140-149.
  • NAKAYAMA, M., NAKANO, H., HAMADA, H., ITAMI, N., NAKAZAWA, R. & ITO, S. (2010). A novel bioactive haemodialysis system using dissolved dihydrogen (H-2) produced by water electrolysis: a clinical trial. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 25, 3026-3033.
  • ITO, M., IBI, T., SAHASHI, K., ICHIHARA, M. & OHNO, K. (2011). Open-label trial and randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of hydrogen-enriched water for mitochondrial and inflammatory myopathies. Medical Gas Research 1, 24.
  • KANG, K.-M., KANG, Y.-N., CHOI, I.-B., GU, Y., KAWAMURA, T., TOYODA, Y. & NAKAO, A. (2011). Effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on the quality of life of patients treated with radiotherapy for liver tumors. Medical Gas Research 1, 11.
  • OSTOJIć, S. M., STOJANOVIć, M. D., CALLEJA-GONZALEZ, J., OBRENOVIć, M. D., VELJOVIć, D., MEđEDOVIć, B., KANOSTREVAC, K., STOJANOVIć, M. & VUKOMANOVIć, B. (2011). Drinks with alkaline negative oxidative reduction potential improve exercise performance in physically active men and women: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial of efficacy and safety. Serbian journal of sports sciences 5, 83-89.
  • AOKI, K., NAKAO, A., ADACHI, T., MATSUI, Y. & MIYAKAWA, S. (2012). Pilot study: Effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on muscle fatigue caused by acute exercise in elite athletes. Medical Gas Research 2, 12.
  • ISHIBASHI, T., SATO, B., RIKITAKE, M., SEO, T., KUROKAWA, R., HARA, Y., NARITOMI, Y., HARA, H. & NAGAO, T. (2012). Consumption of water containing a high concentration of molecular hydrogen reduces oxidative stress and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: an open-label pilot study. Medical Gas Research 2, 27.
  • ONO, H., NISHIJIMA, Y., ADACHI, N., SAKAMOTO, M., KUDO, Y., KANEKO, K., NAKAO, A. & IMAOKA, T. (2012). A basic study on molecular hydrogen (H2) inhalation in acute cerebral ischemia patients for safety check with physiological parameters and measurement of blood H2 level. Medical Gas Research 2, 21.
  • ONO, H., NISHIJIMA, Y., ADACHI, N., SAKAMOTO, M., KUDO, Y., NAKAZAWA, J., KANEKO, K. & NAKAO, A. (2012). Hydrogen(H2) treatment for acute erythymatous skin diseases. A report of 4 patients with safety data and a non-controlled feasibility study with H2 concentration measurement on two volunteers. Medical Gas Research 2, 14.
  • MATSUMOTO, S., UEDA, T. & KAKIZAKI, H. (2013). Effect of supplementation with hydrogen-rich water in patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. Urology 81, 226-30.
  • P., D., OSTOJIC, S. M., M., S. & T., A. T. (2013). Hydrogen-Rich Water in Judo Training. . Psycho-Physiological, Spiritual and Ethical Aspects), 129.
  • SHIN, M. H., PARK, R., NOJIMA, H., KIM, H. C., KIM, Y. K. & CHUNG, J. H. (2013). Atomic Hydrogen Surrounded by Water Molecules, H(H2O)m, Modulates Basal and UV-Induced Gene Expressions in Human Skin In Vivo. PLoS One 8, e61696.
  • TERAWAKI, H., HAYASHI, Y., ZHU, W. J., MATSUYAMA, Y., TERADA, T., KABAYAMA, S., WATANABE, T., ERA, S., SATO, B. & NAKAYAMA, M. (2013). Transperitoneal administration of dissolved hydrogen for peritoneal dialysis patients: a novel approach to suppress oxidative stress in the peritoneal cavity. Medical Gas Research 3, 14.
  • YORITAKA, A., TAKANASHI, M., HIRAYAMA, M., NAKAHARA, T., OHTA, S. & HATTORI, N. (2013). Pilot study of H(2) therapy in Parkinson’s disease: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Movement Disorders.

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Ischemia/Reperfusion


  • FUKUDA, K., ASOH, S., ISHIKAWA, M., YAMAMOTO, Y., OHSAWA, I. & OHTA, S. (2007). Inhalation of hydrogen gas suppresses hepatic injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion through reducing oxidative stress. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 361, 670-674.
  • CAI, J., KANG, Z., LIU, W. W., LUO, X., QIANG, S., ZHANG, J. H., OHTA, S., SUN, X., XU, W., TAO, H. & LI, R. (2008). Hydrogen therapy reduces apoptosis in neonatal hypoxia-ischemia rat model. Neurosci Lett 441, 167-172.
  • HAYASHIDA, K., SANO, M., KIMURA, K., ENDO, J., KATAYAMA, T., TOKUDOME, S., ONIZUKA, T., YUASA, S., KAWAMURA, A., OGAWA, S. & FUKUDA, K. (2008). Inhalation of hydrogen gas protects the heart from ischemic reperfusion injury. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 51, A375-A375.
  • HAYASHIDA, K., SANO, M., OHSAWA, I., SHINMURA, K., TAMAKI, K., KIMURA, K., ENDO, J., KATAYAMA, T., KAWAMURA, A., KOHSAKA, S., MAKINO, S., OHTA, S., OGAWA, S. & FUKUDA, K. (2008). Inhalation of hydrogen gas reduces infarct size in the rat model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 373, 30-35.
  • HAYASHIDA, K., SANO, M., OHSAWA, I., SHINMURA, K., TAMAKI, K., KIMURA, K., ENDO, J., OHTA, S., FUKUDA, K. & OGAWA, S. (2008). Inhalation of hydrogen gas reduces infarct size in the rat model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Journal of Cardiac Failure 14, S168-S168.
  • KUROKI, C., TOKUMARU, O., OGATA, K. & YOKOI, I. (2008). Neuroprotective effects of hydrogen gas on brain in hypoxic stress model and ischemia-reperfusion model: A P-31 NMR study. Neuroscience Research 61, S274-S274.
  • CAI, J. M., KANG, Z. M., LIU, K., LIU, W. W., LI, R. P., ZHANG, J. H., LUO, X. & SUN, X. J. (2009). Neuroprotective effects of hydrogen saline in neonatal hypoxia-ischemia rat model. Brain Res 1256, 129-137.
  • KUROKI, C., TOKUMARU, O., OGATA, K., KOGA, H. & YOKOI, I. (2009). Neuroprotective Effects of Hydrogen Gas on Brain in Ischemia-Reperfusion Model: A P-31-Nmr Study. Journal of Physiological Sciences 59, 371-371.
  • MAO, Y. F., ZHENG, X. F., CAI, J. M., YOU, X. M., DENG, X. M., ZHANG, J. H., JIANG, L. & SUN, X. J. (2009). Hydrogen-rich saline reduces lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 381, 602-5.
  • MATCHETT, G. A., FATHALI, N., HASEGAWA, Y., JADHAV, V., OSTROWSKI, R. P., MARTIN, R. D., DOROTTA, I. R., SUN, X. & ZHANG, J. H. (2009). Hydrogen gas is ineffective in moderate and severe neonatal hypoxia-ischemia rat models. Brain Research 1259, 90-7.
  • SUN, Q., KANG, Z. M., CAI, J. M., LIU, W. W., LIU, Y., ZHANG, J. H., DENOBLE, P. J., TAO, H. Y. & SUN, X. J. (2009). Hydrogen-Rich Saline Protects Myocardium Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats. Experimental Biology and Medicine 234, 1212-1219.
  • ZHENG, X., MAO, Y., CAI, J., LI, Y., LIU, W., SUN, P., ZHANG, J. H., SUN, X. & YUAN, H. (2009). Hydrogen-rich saline protects against intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Free Radic Res 43, 478-84.
  • KAWAMURA, T., HUANG, C. S., TOCHIGI, N., LEE, S., SHIGEMURA, N., BILLIAR, T. R., OKUMURA, M., NAKAO, A. & TOYODA, Y. (2010). Inhaled Hydrogen Gas Therapy for Prevention of Lung Transplant-Induced Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats. Transplantation 90, 1344-1351
  • NAKAO, A., KACZOROWSKI, D. J., WANG, Y., CARDINAL, J. S., BUCHHOLZ, B. M., SUGIMOTO, R., TOBITA, K., LEE, S., TOYODA, Y., BILLIAR, T. R. & MCCURRY, K. R. (2010). Amelioration of rat cardiac cold ischemia/reperfusion injury with inhaled hydrogen or carbon monoxide, or both. The Journal of heart and lung transplantation : the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation 29, 544-53.
  • SHINGU, C., KOGA, H., HAGIWARA, S., MATSUMOTO, S., GOTO, K., YOKOI, I. & NOGUCHI, T. (2010). Hydrogen-rich saline solution attenuates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Journal of Anesthesia 24, 569-574.
  • CHEN, H., SUN, Y. P., HU, P. F., LIU, W. W., XIANG, H. G., LI, Y., YAN, R. L., SU, N., RUAN, C. P., SUN, X. J. & WANG, Q. (2011). The effects of hydrogen-rich saline on the contractile and structural changes of intestine induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Journal of Surgical Research 167, 316-22.
  • ELTZSCHIG, H. K. & ECKLE, T. (2011). Ischemia and reperfusion–from mechanism to translation. Nature Medicine 17, 1391-401.
  • HUANG, Y., XIE, K. L., LI, J. P., XU, N., GONG, G., WANG, G. L., YU, Y. H., DONG, H. L. & XIONG, L. Z. (2011). Beneficial effects of hydrogen gas against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury in rabbits. Brain Research 1378, 125-136.
  • JI, Q., HUI, K., ZHANG, L., SUN, X., LI, W. & DUAN, M. (2011). The effect of hydrogen-rich saline on the brain of rats with transient ischemia. Journal of Surgical Research 168, e95-e101.
  • LIU, Y., LIU, W., SUN, X., LI, R., SUN, Q., CAI, J., KANG, Z., LV, S., ZHANG, J. H. & ZHANG, W. (2011). Hydrogen saline offers neuroprotection by reducing oxidative stress in a focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rat model. Medical Gas Research 1, 15.
  • WANG, F., YU, G., LIU, S. Y., LI, J. B., WANG, J. F., BO, L. L., QIAN, L. R., SUN, X. J. & DENG, X. M. (2011). Hydrogen-Rich Saline Protects Against Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats. Journal of Surgical Research 167, e339-44.
  • ZHANG, Y., SUN, Q., HE, B., XIAO, J., WANG, Z. & SUN, X. (2011). Anti-inflammatory effect of hydrogen-rich saline in a rat model of regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. International Journal of Cardiology 148, 91-5.
  • ZHU, W. J., NAKAYAMA, M., MORI, T., NAKAYAMA, K., KATOH, J., MURATA, Y., SATO, T., KABAYAMA, S. & ITO, S. (2011). Intake of water with high levels of dissolved hydrogen (H2) suppresses ischemia-induced cardio-renal injury in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation 26, 2112-8.
  • GE, P., ZHAO, J., LI, S., DING, Y., YANG, F. & LUO, Y. (2012). Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates cognitive impairment in transient cerebral ischemia via inhibition of oxidative stress. Neurological Research 34, 187-94.
  • JIANG, D., WU, D., ZHANG, Y., XU, B., SUN, X. & LI, Z. (2012). Protective effects of hydrogen rich saline solution on experimental testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. J Urol 187, 2249-53.
  • LEE, J. W., KIM, J. I., LEE, Y. A., LEE, D. H., SONG, C. S., CHO, Y. J. & HAN, J. S. (2012). Inhaled hydrogen gas therapy for prevention of testicular ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Journal of Pediatric Surgery 47, 736-742.
  • LI, H., ZHOU, R., LIU, J., LI, Q., ZHANG, J., MU, J. & SUN, X. (2012). Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates lung ischemia-reperfusion injury in rabbits. Journal of Surgical Research 174, e11-6.
  • LI, J., DONG, Y., CHEN, H., HAN, H., YU, Y., WANG, G., ZENG, Y. & XIE, K. (2012). Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline in a rat model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia via reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. Brain Research 1486, 103-11.
  • NAGATANI, K., TAKEUCHI, S., OTANI, N., WADA, K. & NAWASHIRO, H. (2012). Effect of Hydrogen Gas on the Survival Rate of Mice Following Global Cerebral Ischemia. Shock 37(6):645-652, 2012 Reply. Shock 38, 444-445.
  • NAGATANI, K., WADA, K., TAKEUCHI, S., KOBAYASHI, H., UOZUMI, Y., OTANI, N., FUJITA, M., TACHIBANA, S. & NAWASHIRO, H. (2012). Effect of Hydrogen Gas on the Survival Rate of Mice Following Global Cerebral Ischemia. Shock 37, 645-652.
  • ZHANG, J., LIU, C., TAI, M. & QU, K. (2012). Effect of hydrogen gas on the survival rate of mice following global cerebral ischemia (Shock 37(6), 645-652, 2012). Shock 38, 444; author reply 444-5.
  • ZHANG, J. Y., LIU, C., TAI, M. H. & QU, K. (2012). Effect of Hydrogen Gas on the Survival Rate of Mice Following Global Cerebral Ischemia. Shock 37(6):645-652, 2012. Shock 38, 444-444.
  • ZHAO, L., WANG, Y. B., QIN, S. R., MA, X. M., SUN, X. J., WANG, M. L. & ZHONG, R. G. (2013). Protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline on ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat skin flap. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 14, 382-91.
  • ZHOU, L., WANG, X., XUE, W., XIE, K., HUANG, Y., CHEN, H., GONG, G. & ZENG, Y. (2013). Beneficial effects of hydrogen-rich saline against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury in rabbits. Brain Research 1517, 150-60.

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Kidney


  • NAKAYAMA, M., KABAYAMA, S., TERAWAKI, H., NAKAYAMA, K., KATO, K., SATO, T. & ITO, S. (2007). Less-oxidative hemodialysis solution rendered by cathode-side application of electrolyzed water. Hemodial Int 11, 322-7.
  • YUSUKE OHSAKI1, T. M., 2, YOSHIMI YONEKI1, SATOSHI ENDO1, TAKUMA HOSOYA1, WANJUN ZHU3, MASAAKI NAKAYAMA3 AND SADAYOSHI ITO1. (2008). Electrolyzed water reduces urinary protein excretion in the streptozotocin induced diabetic Dahl salt sensitive rats. The FASEB Journal.
  • CARDINAL, J. S., ZHAN, J., WANG, Y., SUGIMOTO, R., TSUNG, A., MCCURRY, K. R., BILLIAR, T. R. & NAKAO, A. (2010). Oral hydrogen water prevents chronic allograft nephropathy in rats. Kidney International 77, 101-9.
  • KITAMURA, A., KOBAYASHI, S., MATSUSHITA, T., FUJINAWA, H. & MURASE, K. (2010). Experimental verification of protective effect of hydrogen-rich water against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using dynamic contrast-enhanced CT. British Journal of Radiology 83, 509-514.
  • MATSUSHITA, T., KUSAKABE, Y., KITAMURA, A., OKADA, S. & MURASE, K. (2011). Protective effect of hydrogen-rich water against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using blood oxygenation level-dependent MR imaging. Magn Reson Med Sci 10, 169-76.
  • KATAKURA, M., HASHIMOTO, M., TANABE, Y. & SHIDO, O. (2012). Hydrogen-rich water inhibits glucose and alpha,beta -dicarbonyl compound-induced reactive oxygen species production in the SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rat kidney. Medical Gas Research 2, 18.
  • KATO, S., HOKAMA, R., OKAYASU, H., SAITOH, Y., IWAI, K. & MIWA, N. (2012). Colloidal platinum in hydrogen-rich water exhibits radical-scavenging activity and improves blood fluidity. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 12, 4019-27.

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Liver


  • GHARIB, B., HANNA, S., ABDALLAHI, O. M., LEPIDI, H., GARDETTE, B. & DE REGGI, M. (2001). Anti-inflammatory properties of molecular hydrogen: investigation on parasite-induced liver inflammation. C R Acad Sci III 324, 719-724.
  • ITOH, T., FUJITA, Y., ITO, M., MASUDA, A., OHNO, K., ICHIHARA, M., KOJIMA, T., NOZAWA, Y. & ITO, M. (2009). Molecular hydrogen suppresses FcepsilonRI-mediated signal transduction and prevents degranulation of mast cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 389, 651-6.
  • KAJIYA, M., SATO, K., SILVA, M. J., OUHARA, K., DO, P. M., SHANMUGAM, K. T. & KAWAI, T. (2009). Hydrogen from intestinal bacteria is protective for Concanavalin A-induced hepatitis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 386, 316-21.
  • PARK, S. K., QI, X. F., SONG, S. B., KIM, D. H., TENG, Y. C., YOON, Y. S., KIM, K. Y., LI, J. H., JIN, D. & LEE, K. J. (2009). Electrolyzed-reduced water inhibits acute ethanol-induced hangovers in Sprague-Dawley rats. Biomed Res 30, 263-9.
  • TSAI, C. F., HSU, Y. W., CHEN, W. K., CHANG, W. H., YEN, C. C., HO, Y. C. & LU, F. J. (2009). Hepatoprotective effect of electrolyzed reduced water against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice. Food Chem Toxicol 47, 2031-6.
  • LIU, Q., SHEN, W. F., SUN, H. Y., FAN, D. F., NAKAO, A., CAI, J. M., YAN, G., ZHOU, W. P., SHEN, R. X., YANG, J. M. & SUN, X. J. (2010). Hydrogen-rich saline protects against liver injury in rats with obstructive jaundice. Liver International 30, 958-968.
  • SHEN, M. H., HE, J. A., CAI, J. M., SUN, Q. A., SUN, X. J. & HUO, Z. L. (2010). Hydrogen as a novel and effective treatment of acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Medical Hypotheses 75, 235-237.
  • SUN, H., CHEN, L., ZHOU, W., HU, L., LI, L., TU, Q., CHANG, Y., LIU, Q., SUN, X., WU, M. & WANG, H. (2011). The protective role of hydrogen-rich saline in experimental liver injury in mice. Journal of Hepatology 54, 471-80.
  • XIANG, L., TAN, J. W., HUANG, L. J., JIA, L., LIU, Y. Q., ZHAO, Y. Q., WANG, K. & DONG, J. H. (2012). Inhalation of hydrogen gas reduces liver injury during major hepatotectomy in swine. World Journal of Gastroenterology 18, 5197-5204.
  • KOYAMA, Y., TAURA, K., HATANO, E., TANABE, K., YAMAMOTO, G., NAKAMURA, K., YAMANAKA, K., KITAMURA, K., NARITA, M., NAGATA, H., YANAGIDA, A., IIDA, T., IWAISAKO, K., FUJINAWA, H. & UEMOTO, S. (2013). Effects of Oral Intake of Hydrogen Water on Liver Fibrogenesis in Mice. Hepatol Res.
  • LIU, G. D., ZHANG, H., WANG, L., HAN, Q., ZHOU, S. F. & LIU, P. (2013). Molecular hydrogen regulates the expression of miR-9, miR-21 and miR-199 in LPS-activated retinal microglia cells. Int J Ophthalmol 6, 280-5.
  • WANG, W., TIAN, L., LI, Y., WANG, X., XIA, F., LI, L., LI, J. & ZHANG, Z. (2013). Effects of hydrogen-rich saline on rats with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Journal of Emergency Medicine 44, 107-15.

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Lung and Other Organs


  • HUANG, C. S., KAWAMURA, T., LEE, S., TOCHIGI, N., SHIGEMURA, N., BUCHHOLZ, B. M., KLOKE, J. D., BILLIAR, T. R., TOYODA, Y. & NAKAO, A. (2010). Hydrogen inhalation ameliorates ventilator-induced lung injury. Critical Care 14, R234.
  • QIU, X. C., JIN, Y. C., SUN, Y., LUO, P. F., FU, J. F., CHEN, B. & XIA, Z. F. (2010). [Effect of hydrogen-rich saline on blood pressure and antioxidant ability of lung tissue in scalded rats following delayed resuscitation]. Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi 26, 435-8.
  • ZHENG, J., LIU, K., KANG, Z. M., CAI, J. M., LIU, W. W., XU, W. G., LI, R. P., TAO, H. Y., ZHANG, J. H. & SUN, X. J. (2010). Saturated hydrogen saline protects the lung against oxygen toxicity. Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine 37, 185-192.
  • FANG, Y., FU, X. J., GU, C., XU, P., WANG, Y., YU, W. R., SUN, Q., SUN, X. J. & YAO, M. (2011). Hydrogen-rich saline protects against acute lung injury induced by extensive burn in rat model. Journal of Burn Care and Research 32, e82-91.
  • HUANG, C. S., KAWAMURA, T., PENG, X., TOCHIGI, N., SHIGEMURA, N., BILLIAR, T. R., NAKAO, A. & TOYODA, Y. (2011). Hydrogen inhalation reduced epithelial apoptosis in ventilator-induced lung injury via a mechanism involving nuclear factor-kappa B activation. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 408, 253-8.
  • LIU, S., LIU, K., SUN, Q., LIU, W., XU, W., DENOBLE, P., TAO, H. & SUN, X. (2011). Consumption of hydrogen water reduces paraquat-induced acute lung injury in rats. Journal of Biomedicine & Biotechnology 2011, 305086.
  • QIU, X., LI, H., TANG, H., JIN, Y., LI, W., YUSUN, PINGFENG, SUN, X. & XIA, Z. (2011). Hydrogen inhalation ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice. Int Immunopharmacol 11, 2130-7.
  • SUN, Q. A., CAI, J. M., LIU, S. L., LIU, Y., XU, W. G., TAO, H. Y. & SUN, X. J. (2011). Hydrogen-Rich Saline Provides Protection Against Hyperoxic Lung Injury. Journal of Surgical Research 165, E43-E49.
  • TERASAKI, Y., OHSAWA, I., TERASAKI, M., TAKAHASHI, M., KUNUGI, S., DEDONG, K., URUSHIYAMA, H., AMENOMORI, S., KANEKO-TOGASHI, M., KUWAHARA, N., ISHIKAWA, A., KAMIMURA, N., OHTA, S. & FUKUDA, Y. (2011). Hydrogen therapy attenuates irradiation-induced lung damage by reducing oxidative stress. American Journal of Physiology – Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 301, L415-26.
  • LIANG, C., LIU, X., LIU, L. & HE, D. (2012). [Effect of hydrogen inhalation on p38 MAPK activation in rats with lipopolysaccharide- induced acute lung injury]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 32, 1211-3.
  • SHI, J., YAO, F., ZHONG, C., PAN, X., YANG, Y. & LIN, Q. (2012). Hydrogen saline is protective for acute lung ischaemia/reperfusion injuries in rats. Heart Lung Circ 21, 556-63.
  • XIE, K., YU, Y., HUANG, Y., ZHENG, L., LI, J., CHEN, H., HAN, H., HOU, L., GONG, G. & WANG, G. (2012). Molecular hydrogen ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice through reducing inflammation and apoptosis. Shock 37, 548-55.
  • KAWAMURA, T., WAKABAYASHI, N., SHIGEMURA, N., HUANG, C. S., MASUTANI, K., TANAKA, Y., NODA, K., PENG, X., TAKAHASHI, T., BILLIAR, T. R., OKUMURA, M., TOYODA, Y., KENSLER, T. W. & NAKAO, A. (2013). Hydrogen gas reduces hyperoxic lung injury via the Nrf2 pathway in vivo. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 304, L646-56.
  • LIU, W., SHAN, L. P., DONG, X. S., LIU, X. W., MA, T. & LIU, Z. (2013). Combined early fluid resuscitation and hydrogen inhalation attenuates lung and intestine injury. World J Gastroenterol 19, 492-502.
  • XIAO, M., ZHU, T., WANG, T. & WEN, F. Q. (2013). Hydrogen-rich saline reduces airway remodeling via inactivation of NF-kappaB in a murine model of asthma. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 17, 1033-43.

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Metabolic Syndrome


  • DARNAUD, C. (1951). [Indications for alkaline mineral water cure in diabetes mellitus]. Toulouse Med 52, 277-84.
  • YOKOYAMA, J.-M. K. A. K. (1997). Effects of alkaline ionized water on spontaneously diabetic GK-rats fed sucrose. Korea. J. of Lab. Anim Sa 13, 187-190.
  • NELSON, D., AVULA, C. P. R., JOLLY, C., DE VIERVILLE, J. & FERNANDES, G. (1998). Effect of electrolyzed water intake on lifespan of autoimmune disease prone mice. Faseb Journal 12, A794-A794.
  • M. ODA, K. K., K. TERUYA, T. HARA, T. MAKI, S. KABAYAMA, Y. KATAKURA, K. OTSUBO, S. MORISAWA, H. HAYASHI. (2000). Electrolyzed and natural reduced water exhibit insulin-like activity on glucose uptake into muscle cells and adipocytes. Animal Cell Technology: Products from Cells, Cells as Products, 425-427.
  • SHIRAHATA, S. (2001). Anti-oxidative water improves diabetes.
  • LI, Y., NISHIMURA, T., TERUYA, K., MAKI, T., KOMATSU, T., HAMASAKI, T., KASHIWAGI, T., KABAYAMA, S., SHIM, S. Y., KATAKURA, Y., OSADA, K., KAWAHARA, T., OTSUBO, K., MORISAWA, S., ISHII, Y., GADEK, Z. & SHIRAHATA, S. (2002). Protective mechanism of reduced water against alloxan-induced pancreatic beta-cell damage: Scavenging effect against reactive oxygen species. Cytotechnology 40, 139-49.
  • CHIASSON, J. L., JOSSE, R. G., GOMIS, R., HANEFELD, M., KARASIK, A. & LAAKSO, M. (2003). Acarbose treatment and the risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension in patients with impaired glucose tolerance: the STOP-NIDDM trial. JAMA 290, 486-94.
  • KIM, H.-W. (2004). Alkaline Reduced Water produced by UMQ showed Anti-cancer and Anti-diabetic effect.
  • SHIRAHATA, S. (2004). The suppressive effect of electrolyzed reduced water on lipid peroxidation.
  • LI, Y.-P., TERUYA, K., KATAKURA, Y., KABAYAMA, S., OTSUBO, K.,MORISAWA, S., ET AL. (2005). Effect of reduced water on the apoptotic cell death triggered by oxidative stress in pancreatic b HIT-T15 cell. Animal cell technology meets genomics, 121-124.
  • ETC..ET.AL, G. Y. (2006). Anti-oxidation Effect and Anti Type 2 Diabetic Effect in Active Hydrogen Water
  • . Medicine and Biology 150, 384-392.
  • JIN, D., RYU, S. H., KIM, H. W., YANG, E. J., LIM, S. J., RYANG, Y. S., CHUNG, C. H., PARK, S. K. & LEE, K. J. (2006). Anti-diabetic effect of alkaline-reduced water on OLETF rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 70, 31-7.
  • KIM, M. J. & KIM, H. K. (2006). Anti-diabetic effects of electrolyzed reduced water in streptozotocin-induced and genetic diabetic mice. Life Sci 79, 2288-92.
  • N, D. P., SEUNG-KYU ; LEE, YOUNG-MI ; YOON, YANG-SUK ; KIM, DONG-HEUI ; DEUNG, YOUNG-KUN ; LEE, KYU-JAE. (2006). Effect of mineral induced alkaline reduced water on sprague-dawley rats fed on a high fat diet. J. Exp. Biomed. Sci. 12, 1-7.
  • YEUNHWA GU, K. O., TAIGO FUJ, YUKA ITOKAWA, TAKASHI MASUBUCHI, Y. K., TOSHIHIRO MAENAKA,, KWANG-HO CHO7), J.-S. C., TAKENORI YAMASHITA,, YASUYUKI TAKAGI, I.-B. C., KI-MUN KANG,, TAKEO HASEGAWA, T. M., MASAMI OSHIMA & IKUKATSU SUZUKI, A. T. I. (2006). Anti Type 2 Diabetic Effect and Anti-oxidation Effect in Active Hydrogen Water Administration KK-Ay Mice. Medicine and Biology 150, 384-392.
  • KIM, M. J., JUNG, K. H., UHM, Y. K., LEEM, K. H. & KIM, H. K. (2007). Preservative effect of electrolyzed reduced water on pancreatic beta-cell mass in diabetic db/db mice. Biol Pharm Bull 30, 234-6.
  • OHSAWA, I., NISHIMAKI, K., YAMAGATA, K., ISHIKAWA, M. & OHTA, S. (2008). Consumption of hydrogen water prevents atherosclerosis in apoliporotein E knockout mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 377, 1195-8.
  • KAWAHITO, S., KITAHATA, H. & OSHITA, S. (2009). Problems associated with glucose toxicity: Role of hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. World Journal of Gastroenterology 15, 4137-4142.
  • MENGTSAN, C. Y. C. (2009). Effect of alkaline reduced water on erythrocyte oxidative status and plasma lipids of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Taiwanese Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Science 47, 71-72.
  • CHEN, C. H., MANAENKO, A., ZHAN, Y., LIU, W. W., OSTROWKI, R. P., TANG, J. & ZHANG, J. H. (2010). Hydrogen Gas Reduced Acute Hyperglycemia-Enhanced Hemorrhagic Transformation in a Focal Ischemia Rat Model. Neuroscience 169, 402-414.
  • MASUMI ABE, S. S., KAZUKO TOH, TAKEKI HAMASAKI, NOBORU NAKAMICHI, KIICHIRO TERUYA, YOSHINORI KATAKURA, SHINKATSU MORISAWA, SANETAKA SHIRAHATA. (2010). Suppressive Effect of ERW on Lipid Peroxidation and Plasma Triglyceride Level. Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects 16.
  • HASHIMOTO, M., KATAKURA, M., NABIKA, T., TANABE, Y., HOSSAIN, S., TSUCHIKURA, S. & SHIDO, O. (2011). Effects of hydrogen-rich water on abnormalities in a SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rat – a metabolic syndrome rat model. Medical Gas Research 1, 26.
  • KAMIMURA, N., NISHIMAKI, K., OHSAWA, I. & OHTA, S. (2011). Molecular Hydrogen Improves Obesity and Diabetes by Inducing Hepatic FGF21 and Stimulating Energy Metabolism in db/db Mice. Obesity.
  • LI, Y., HAMASAKI, T., NAKAMICHI, N., KASHIWAGI, T., KOMATSU, T., YE, J., TERUYA, K., ABE, M., YAN, H., KINJO, T., KABAYAMA, S., KAWAMURA, M. & SHIRAHATA, S. (2011). Suppressive effects of electrolyzed reduced water on alloxan-induced apoptosis and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Cytotechnology 63, 119-31.
  • NAKAI, Y., SATO, B., USHIAMA, S., OKADA, S., ABE, K. & ARAI, S. (2011). Hepatic oxidoreduction-related genes are upregulated by administration of hydrogen-saturated drinking water. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 75, 774-6.
  • SHIRAHATA, S., HAMASAKI, T., HARAMAKI, K., NAKAMURA, T., ABE, M., YAN, H., KINJO, T., NAKAMICHI, N., KABAYAMA, S. & TERUYA, K. (2011). Anti-diabetes effect of water containing hydrogen molecule and Pt nanoparticles. BMC Proc 5 Suppl 8, P18.
  • SONG, G., TIAN, H., LIU, J., ZHANG, H., SUN, X. & QIN, S. (2011). H2 inhibits TNF-alpha-induced lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 expression by inhibiting nuclear factor kappaB activation in endothelial cells. Biotechnology Letters 33, 1715-22.
  • WANG, Y., JING, L., ZHAO, X. M., HAN, J. J., XIA, Z. L., QIN, S. C., WU, Y. P. & SUN, X. J. (2011). Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline on monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in a rat model. Respir Res 12, 26.
  • YANG, X., GUO, L., SUN, X., CHEN, X. & TONG, X. (2011). Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline in preeclampsia rat model. Placenta 32, 681-6.
  • YU, P., WANG, Z., SUN, X., CHEN, X., ZENG, S., CHEN, L. & LI, S. (2011). Hydrogen-rich medium protects human skin fibroblasts from high glucose or mannitol induced oxidative damage. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 409, 350-5.
  • EKUNI, D., TOMOFUJI, T., ENDO, Y., KASUYAMA, K., IRIE, K., AZUMA, T., TAMAKI, N., MIZUTANI, S., KOJIMA, A. & MORITA, M. (2012). Hydrogen-rich water prevents lipid deposition in the descending aorta in a rat periodontitis model. Arch Oral Biol 57, 1615-22.
  • FAN, M., XU, X., HE, X., CHEN, L., QIAN, L., LIU, J., QING, J., CHAO, Z. & SUN, X. (2012). Protective Effects of Hydrogen-Rich Saline Against Erectile Dysfunction in a Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rat Model. J Urol.
  • KAWAI, D., TAKAKI, A., NAKATSUKA, A., WADA, J., TAMAKI, N., YASUNAKA, T., KOIKE, K., TSUZAKI, R., MATSUMOTO, K., MIYAKE, Y., SHIRAHA, H., MORITA, M., MAKINO, H. & YAMAMOTO, K. (2012). Hydrogen-rich water prevents progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and accompanying hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. Hepatology 56, 912-21.
  • NISHIOKA, S., YOSHIOKA, T., OHKITA, M., MATSUMURA, Y., ISHIZAKA, N., OKADA, Y. & HAYASHI, T. (2012). Effect of hydrogen gas inhalation on lipid metabolism and left ventricular remodeling induced by intermittent hypoxia in mice. European Heart Journal 33, 794-794.
  • WANG, Q. J., ZHA, X. J., KANG, Z. M., XU, M. J., HUANG, Q. & ZOU, D. J. (2012). Therapeutic effects of hydrogen saturated saline on rat diabetic model and insulin resistant model via reduction of oxidative stress. Chin Med J (Engl) 125, 1633-7.
  • YU, Y. S. & ZHENG, H. (2012). Chronic hydrogen-rich saline treatment reduces oxidative stress and attenuates left ventricular hypertrophy in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Mol Cell Biochem 365, 233-42.
  • ZHENG, H. & YU, Y. S. (2012). Chronic hydrogen-rich saline treatment attenuates vascular dysfunction in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Biochemical Pharmacology 83, 1269-77.
  • ZONG, C., SONG, G., YAO, S., LI, L., YU, Y., FENG, L., GUO, S., LUO, T. & QIN, S. (2012). Administration of hydrogen-saturated saline decreases plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and improves high-density lipoprotein function in high-fat diet-fed hamsters. Metabolism 61, 794-800.
  • AMITANI, H., ASAKAWA, A., CHENG, K. C., AMITANI, M., KAIMOTO, K., NAKANO, M., USHIKAI, M., LI, Y. X., TSAI, M. L., LI, J. B., TERASHI, M., CHAOLU, H., KAMIMURA, R. & INUI, A. (2013). Hydrogen Improves Glycemic Control in Type1 Diabetic Animal Model by Promoting Glucose Uptake into Skeletal Muscle. PLoS One 8.
  • IIO, A., ITO, M., ITOH, T., TERAZAWA, R., FUJITA, Y., NOZAWA, Y., OHSAWA, I. & OHNO, K. (2013). Molecular hydrogen attenuates fatty acid uptake and lipid accumulation through downregulating CD36 expression in HepG2 cells. Medical Gas Research 3, 6.
  • JIANG, H., YU, P., QIAN, D. H., QIN, Z. X., SUN, X. J., YU, J. & HUANG, L. (2013). Hydrogen-rich medium suppresses the generation of reactive oxygen species, elevates the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and inhibits advanced glycation end product-induced apoptosis. Int J Mol Med 31, 1381-7.

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Sepsis, Gastritis, Intestine


  • NAITO, Y., TAKAGI, T., UCHIYAMA, K., TOMATSURI, N., MATSUYAMA, K., FUJII, T., YAGI, N., YOSHIDA, N. & YOSHIKAWA, T. (2002). Chronic administration with electrolyzed alkaline water inhibits aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats through the inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 32, 69-81.
  • VOROBJEVA, N. V. (2005). Selective stimulation of the growth of anaerobic microflora in the human intestinal tract by electrolyzed reducing water. Med Hypotheses 64, 543-6.
  • BUCHHOLZ, B. M., KACZOROWSKI, D. J., SUGIMOTO, R., YANG, R., WANG, Y., BILLIAR, T. R., MCCURRY, K. R., BAUER, A. J. & NAKAO, A. (2008). Hydrogen inhalation ameliorates oxidative stress in transplantation induced intestinal graft injury. Am J Transplant 8, 2015-2024.
  • JIN, D. K., DONG-HEUI ; TENG, YUNG-CHIEN ; XUFENG, QI ; LEE, KYU-JAE (2008). The Effect of Mineral-induced Alkaline Reduced Water on the DSS-induced Acute inflammatory Bowel Disease Mouse Model. Korean Journal of Microscopy 38, 81-87.
  • KAJIYA, M., SILVA, M. J., SATO, K., OUHARA, K. & KAWAI, T. (2009). Hydrogen mediates suppression of colon inflammation induced by dextran sodium sulfate. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, in press.
  • XIE, K. L., HOU, L. C., WANG, G. L. & XIONG, L. Z. (2010). [Effects of hydrogen gas inhalation on serum high mobility group box 1 levels in severe septic mice]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 39, 454-7.
  • XIE, K. L., YU, Y. H., PEI, Y. P., HOU, L. C., CHEN, S. Y., XIONG, L. Z. & WANG, G. L. (2010). Protective effects of hydrogen gas on murine polymicrobial sepsis via reducing oxidative stress and HMGB1 release. Shock 34, 90-97.
  • BUCHHOLZ, B. M., MASUTANI, K., KAWAMURA, T., PENG, X., TOYODA, Y., BILLIAR, T. R., BAUER, A. J. & NAKAO, A. (2011). Hydrogen-enriched preservation protects the isogeneic intestinal graft and amends recipient gastric function during transplantation. Transplantation 92, 985-92.
  • YICHAO JIN, X. Q., YU SUN, GUOFENG HUANG, XUEJUN SUN AND ZHAO‐FAN XIA. (2011). Hydrogen May Be Used as a Treatment for Stress-Induced Gastric Ulceration. Med. Hypotheses Res 7, 43-47.
  • LIU, X., CHEN, Z., MAO, N. & XIE, Y. (2012). The protective of hydrogen on stress-induced gastric ulceration. Int Immunopharmacol 13, 197-203.
  • XIE, K., FU, W., XING, W., LI, A., CHEN, H., HAN, H., YU, Y. & WANG, G. (2012). Combination therapy with molecular hydrogen and hyperoxia in a murine model of polymicrobial sepsis. Shock 38, 656-63.
  • XIE, K., YU, Y., HOU, L., CHEN, H., HAN, H., XIONG, L. & WANG, G. (2012). Nrf2 is critical in the protective role of hydrogen gas against murine polymicrobial sepsis. British Journal of Anaesthesia 108, 538-539.
  • HE, J., XIONG, S., ZHANG, J., WANG, J., SUN, A., MEI, X., SUN, X., ZHANG, C. & WANG, Q. (2013). Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline on ulcerative colitis rat model. Journal of Surgical Research.
  • LI, G. M., JI, M. H., SUN, X. J., ZENG, Q. T., TIAN, M., FAN, Y. X., LI, W. Y., LI, N. & YANG, J. J. (2013). Effects of hydrogen-rich saline treatment on polymicrobial sepsis. Journal of Surgical Research 181, 279-86.

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Skin and Radiation


  • QIAN, L. R., CAO, F., CUI, J. G., HUANG, Y. C., ZHOU, X. J., LIU, S. L. & CAI, J. M. (2010). Radioprotective effect of hydrogen in cultured cells and mice. Free Radic Res 44, 275-282.
  • QIAN, L. R., LI, B. L., CAO, F., HUANG, Y. C., LIU, S. L., CAI, J. M. & GAO, F. (2010). Hydrogen-rich PBS protects cultured human cells from ionizing radiation-induced cellular damage. Nuclear Technology & Radiation Protection 25, 23-29.
  • YOON, K. S., HUANG, X. Z., YOON, Y. S., KIM, S. K., SONG, S. B., CHANG, B. S., KIM, D. H. & LEE, K. J. (2011). Histological study on the effect of electrolyzed reduced water-bathing on UVB radiation-induced skin injury in hairless mice. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 34, 1671-7.
  • ZHAO, L., ZHOU, C., ZHANG, J., GAO, F., LI, B., CHUAI, Y., LIU, C. & CAI, J. (2011). Hydrogen protects mice from radiation induced thymic lymphoma in BALB/c mice. International Journal of Biological Sciences 7, 297-300.
  • KATO, S., SAITOH, Y., IWAI, K. & MIWA, N. (2012). Hydrogen-rich electrolyzed warm water represses wrinkle formation against UVA ray together with type-I collagen production and oxidative-stress diminishment in fibroblasts and cell-injury prevention in keratinocytes. J Photochem Photobiol B 106, 24-33.
  • WEI, L., GE, L., QIN, S., SHI, Y., DU, C., DU, H., LIU, L., YU, Y. & SUN, X. (2012). Hydrogen-rich saline protects retina against glutamate-induced excitotoxic injury in guinea pig. Experimental Eye Research 94, 117-27.
  • YANG, Y., LI, B., LIU, C., CHUAI, Y., LEI, J., GAO, F., CUI, J., SUN, D., CHENG, Y., ZHOU, C. & CAI, J. (2012). Hydrogen-rich saline protects immunocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis. Med Sci Monit 18, BR144-8.
  • IGNACIO, R. M., YOON, Y. S., SAJO, M. E. J., KIM, C. S., KIM, D. H., KIM, S. K. & LEE, K. J. (2013). The balneotherapy effect of hydrogen reduced water on UVB-mediated skin injury in hairless mice. Molecular & Cellular Toxicology 9, 15-21.
  • JIANG, Z., XU, B., YANG, M., LI, Z., ZHANG, Y. & JIANG, D. (2013). Protection by hydrogen against gamma ray-induced testicular damage in rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 112, 186-91.

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Spine, Pancreatitis


  • CHEN, C. W., CHEN, Q. B., MAO, Y. F., XU, S. M., XIA, C. Y., SHI, X. Y., ZHANG, J. H., YUAN, H. B. & SUN, X. J. (2010). Hydrogen-Rich Saline Protects Against Spinal Cord Injury in Rats. Neurochemical Research 35, 1111-1118.
  • CHEN, H., SUN, Y. P., LI, Y., LIU, W. W., XIANG, H. G., FAN, L. Y., SUN, Q., XU, X. Y., CAI, J. M., RUAN, C. P., SU, N., YAN, R. L., SUN, X. J. & WANG, Q. (2010). Hydrogen-rich saline ameliorates the severity of L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 393, 308-313.
  • REN, J., LUO, Z., TIAN, F., WANG, Q., LI, K. & WANG, C. (2012). Hydrogen-rich saline reduces the oxidative stress and relieves the severity of trauma-induced acute pancreatitis in rats. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 72, 1555-61.
  • ZHANG, D. Q. & ZHU, J. H. (2012). [Experimental studies of effects of hydrogen-rich saline in rats with severe acute pancreatitis]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 92, 2436-40.

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Safety


  • (1973). Navy Studies Hydrogen as Breathing Gas. Design News 28, 22-22.
  • WATANABE, T., PAN, I., FUKUDA, Y., MURASUGI, E., KAMATA, H. & UWATOKO, K. (1998). Influences of alkaline ionized water on milk yield, body weight of offspring and perinatal dam in rats. J Toxicol Sci 23, 365-71.
  • WATANABE, T., KAMATA, H., FUKUDA, Y., MURASUGI, E., SATO, T., UWATOKO, K. & PAN, I. J. (2000). Influences of alkaline ionized water on milk electrolyte concentrations in maternal rats. J Toxicol Sci 25, 417-22.
  • MERNE, M. E., SYRJANEN, K. J. & SYRJANEN, S. M. (2001). Systemic and local effects of long-term exposure to alkaline drinking water in rats. Int J Exp Pathol 82, 213-9.
  • HAN-SUK JUNG1, D.-H. K., YANG-SUK YOON, YUNG-CHIEN TENG, & LEE, B.-S. C. A. K.-J. (2008). Evaluate of Electrochemical Characteristics in Electrolyzed Reduced Water
  • . Korean J. Microscopy 38, 321-324.
  • LEE, K. J., JIN, D., CHANG, B. S., TENG, Y. C. & KIM, D. H. (2009). The immunological effects of electrolyzed reduced water on the Echinostoma hortense infection in C57BL/6 mice. Biol Pharm Bull 32, 456-62.
  • SAITOH, Y., HARATA, Y., MIZUHASHI, F., NAKAJIMA, M. & MIWA, N. (2010). Biological safety of neutral-pH hydrogen-enriched electrolyzed water upon mutagenicity, genotoxicity and subchronic oral toxicity. Toxicology and Industrial Health 26, 203-216.
  • NI, X. X., CAI, Z. Y., FAN, D. F., LIU, Y., ZHANG, R. J., LIU, S. L., KANG, Z. M., LIU, K., LI, R. P., SUN, X. J. & XU, W. G. (2011). Protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline on decompression sickness in rats. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 82, 604-9.
  • YOON, Y. S., KIM, D. H., KIM, S. K., SONG, S. B., UH, Y., JIN, D., QI, X. F., TENG, Y. C. & LEE, K. J. (2011). The melamine excretion effect of the electrolyzed reduced water in melamine-fed mice. Food and Chemical Toxicology 49, 1814-9.

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